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Prelims Booster

25th April – Prelims Booster

Super-luminous supernovae SN 2010kd

Researchers at the Arayabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES) have found that SN 2010kd, a super-luminous supernova stands out with the amount of mass as well as Nickel ejected during explosion, which is much more than seen in case of normal core-collapse supernovae.

What are ‘supernovae’?

  • Supernovae are a kind of energetic explosions where the core of massive stars (a few times to that of mass of our Sun) go to a catastrophic phase of explosion liberating huge amounts of energy.
  • These events are visible through very far away distances much beyond our own solar system.
  • Super-luminous supernovae are a special type of stellar explosions having energy output 10 or more times higher than that of standard supernovae. 

About Super-luminous supernova SN 2010kd –

  • The super-luminous supernova titled SN 2010kd is rather nearby – approximately at a distance of 1.5 Giga light-years discovered by Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE-IIIb) telescope as a part of ROTSE supernova verification project in the USA on 14 November 2010 embedded in a dwarf host galaxy towards Leo constellation.
  • The larger ejected mass of Super-luminous supernovae SN 2010kd indicates that the related star evolution might be different from other possible progenitors of normal core-collapse supernovae with a different possible underlying physical mechanism responsible for producing such energetic supernovae with large ejected mass and Ni.
  • It exploded with a larger velocity but decayed shower than other similar supernovae.
  • The observations of the scientists show that parameters like rotation and metallicity play a crucial role in stellar explosions and that there are many more types of possible progenitors existing in diverse environments in their host galaxies than previously known.

Deep nudes

Cybercrime officials in India have been tracking certain apps and websites that produce nude photographs of innocent persons using Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms. These images are then used to blackmail victims, seek revenge or commit fraud on social networking and dating sites.

What are ‘deep nudes’?

  • Cybercriminals use Artificial Intelligence (AI) software to superimpose a digital composite (assembling multiple media files to make a final one) on to an existing video, photo or audio. Deep nudes are computer-generated images and videos.
  • Essentially, using AI algorithms a person’s words, head movements and expressions are transferred onto another person in a seamless fashion that makes it difficult to tell that it is a deepfake, unless one closely observes the media file.

Devanahalli Chakota

Endowed with a unique taste and flavour, and a Geographical Indication (GI) tag, the Devanahalli Pomelo, the citrus fruit popularly known as Chakota, is getting fresh cultivation push.

About Chakota –

  • Citrus maxima, the pomelo (also called pummelo or shaddock) belongs to the Rutaceae (citrus family).
  • Its scientific name is Citrus maxima because it is the largest citrus fruit. The closest in size to this king of citrus fruits is a grapefruit. C. maxima is considered as an easily recognised species due to a number of notable morphological characteristics, such as huge leaves borne on broadly winged petioles, very large and fragrance flowers and big fruits with a single embryo.
  • Pomelos are primarily found in Southeast Asia, which is their native region, and primarily found there. It has not  become widely popular in other parts of the world, because it typically takes 8 years before the seeds can begin to flower and bear fruit. Also, much of the weight and volume of pomelos is tough and inedible, while only the inner flesh is palatable.
  • Like other citrus fruits, pomelos are high in Vitamin C. The juice is also used in various beverages (both alcoholic and non alcoholic) and the peel may be candied.
  • Traditional medicinal uses of the fruit include treatment of coughs, fevers, and gastrointestinal disorders.
  • The aromatic flowers are picked and processes into perfume in Vietnam, and the wood, which is heavy and hard grained, used for making tool handles.

Ambubachi Mela

With the lockdown, the annual festival at the Kamakhya temple has been cancelled for the first time in its recorded history.

About Ambubachi Mela –

  • Ambubachi Mela, a four-day fair to mark the annual menstruation of the goddess is held at Kamakhya temple in Guwahati.
  • The Ambubachi Mela symbolises the fertility cult of goddess Kamakhya.
  • There is no idol in the temple, the goddess is worshipped in the form of a yoni-like stone over which a natural spring flows.
  • Also known as Siddha Kubjika, the goddess is a Hindu tantric goddess of desire who evolved in the Himalayan hills. She is also identified as Kali and Maha Tripura.
  • The festival is also known as ‘Mahakumbh of the East’ as it draws lakhs of devotees from all over the world.
  • The ritualistic fair celebrating the goddess’ period is one of the reasons why the taboo associated with menstruation is less in Assam compared with other parts of India.
  • The attainment of womanhood of girls in Assam is celebrated with a ritual called ‘Tuloni Biya’, meaning small wedding.
  • Ambubachi Mela serves as an occasion to promote awareness on menstrual hygiene.

About Kamakhya Temple –

Kamakhya, atop Nilachal Hills in Guwahati, is one of 51 shaktipeeths or seat of Shakti followers, each representing a body part of the Sati, Lord Shiva’s companion.

Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code

In a major relief for corporate borrowers, the government has decided to amend the insolvency law to suspend up to one year provisions that trigger insolvency proceedings against defaulters. This amendment would pave the way for banks to restructure loans.

Details –

  • Sections 7, 9 and 10 of the IBC would be suspended for six months and the suspension time can be extended by up to one year.
  • Section 7 and 9 pertain to initiation of corporate insolvency proceedings by a financial creditor and an operational creditor, respectively. Section 10 relates to filing of an application for insolvency resolution by a corporate.

About Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code –

  • The IBC 2016 applies to companies and individuals. It provides for a time-bound process to resolve insolvency.
  • When a default in repayment occurs, creditors gain control over debtor’s assets and must take decisions to resolve insolvency within a 180-day period.
  • To ensure an uninterrupted resolution process, the Code also provides immunity to debtors from resolution claims of creditors during this period.
  • The Code also consolidates provisions of the current legislative framework to form a common forum for debtors and creditors of all classes to resolve insolvency.
  • National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) – The adjudicating authority (AA), has jurisdiction over companies, other limited liability entities.
  • Debt Recovery Tribunal (DRT) has jurisdiction over individuals and partnership firms other than Limited Liability Partnerships.
  • The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) – It is the apex body for promoting transparency & governance in the administration of the IBC; will be involved in setting up the infrastructure and accrediting IPs (Insolvency Professionals (IPs) & IUs (Information Utilities). It has 10 members from Ministry of Finance, Law, and RBI.

World Press Freedom Index 2020

India has ranked 142 out of 180 in the Global press freedom index. The report was released on April 21 in the annual Reporters without borders analysis.

Details –

  • ‘World Press Freedom Index 2020’ stated as there were no murders of journalists in India in 2019 as compared to 6 in 2018, it showed that the security system in India seemed to have improved.
  • The report states Bangladesh dropping one place to 151 and Pakistan dropping 3 places to 145. Norway has ranked first in the list for the fourth year while China is at 177 position, which is just three places above North Korea at 180th.

About ‘Reporters without Borders’ –

  • Reporters without borders is a non-profit organisation founded in 1985.
  • It works on safeguarding the right to freedom of information.
  • The aim of the organisation is to promote independent, free, and pluralistic journalism as well as to defend media workers.
  • It has obtained a consultative status at UNESCO, United Nations, the Council of Europe, and the International Organisation of the Francophonie.

Daily MCQs

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2 thoughts on “25th April – Prelims Booster”

    1. Dear Dr Vikram Gohil
      The FRBM Act cannot be amended by the states as the same has been passed by the Parliament of India. However, if your question pertains to the relaxation of the fiscal deficit target of 3% (of GSDP) which has to be followed by the states, the answer remains negative. The states have to comply with the FD target of 3% and the ‘escape clause’ (as recommended by ‘NK Singh Committee’) has not been approved for the states yet.
      During the ongoing crisis of COVID19, many states had requested the Centre to relax the 3% Fiscal Deficit target for the states due to the increased expenditure by the states as a response to the crisis. In response to the same, the Centre has approved a relaxation of 0.5% of GSDP i.e. the target has been temporarily relaxed to 3.5% of GSDP for the states (in the current financial year).
      Hope this resolves your query. If any, please feel free to write us again.

      Thank you!

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