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Prelims Booster

28th April – Prelims Booster

Bhagwan Basaveshwara Jayanti

Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi paid homage to Lord Basaveshwara and greeted the people on the occasion of Basava Jayanthi, the Birth anniversary of Lord Basaveshwara.

About Bhagwan Basaveshwara –

  • Basvanna (Lord Basaveshwara) was a 12th-century poet-philosopher, and the founding saint of the Lingayat sect.
  • Basvanna Jayanti (Basava Jayanthi) is celebrated on his birth anniversary, particularly in state of Karnataka and Maharashtra.
  • Early life – Basaveshwara was born in Bagevadi (of undivided Bijapur district in Karnataka) during 1131 AD. His father was Madarasa and Madalambike was his mother. They belonged to the Brahmin community. As a religious tradition, he was initiated with the holy thread ‘janivara’ in Upanayana, (thread ceremony) at the early age of eight years. Basavanna revolted against this tradition, cut threw his janivara, left home and went to Kudalasangama from where he was educated in all respects.
  • Later he went to Kalyana, where the Kalchuri king Bijjala (1157-1167, AD) was ruling. Because of his highly intellectual personality, he was appointed as a karanika (Accountant) in the initial stage, in the court of king Bijjala and later he became the Prime Minister of Bijjala after proving his administrative ability.
  • The ideas of Basavanna are scripted in a novel form of literature called Vachana (poetry). This innovative literary form is the main contribution of “Sharanas movement” through which they express their revolutionary and reformist ideology in a very simple Kannada language. Thus the main aim of Vachana (poetry) movement, led by Basaveshwara was welfare of all. He proclaimed this as– “Sakala jeevatmarige lesu” (welfare of all).
  • He gave two important and innovative concepts called “Sthavara” and “Jangama”, the meaning of which is “Static’’ and ‘’Dynamic’’, respectively. Both of these concepts are the main foundation stones of his revolutionary ideology.
  • He was born progressive activist – Revolted against all the social evils of the traditionalistic society and brought a drastic change in various facets. He gave an idea of Socialistic and Democratic system. He talked about human rights in the twelfth century.
  • Religious reforms – He tried to change the concept of Temple which was the main centre of various types of harassment. Priests and rich people were exploiting the common folk in the name of God and temple. He gave a new dimension to the human body and soul (inner spirit), by which the self respect of all human beings was boosted.
  • Basvanna was first Kannadiga in whose honour a commemorative coin has been minted in recognition of his social reforms.
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated his statue along the bank of the river Thames at Lambeth in 2015.

CERT-In

In the wake of controversy surrounding the Sprinklr deal, Kerala government has decided to carry out a security audit of CERT-In, the nodal agency responsible for dealing with cyber security threats, of the various data collected by government departments and agencies related to COVID19.

About CERT-In –

  • Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-in) was established in January 2004.
  • It comes under the aegis of Union Ministry of Communications and Information Technology.
  • The main function of CERT-In is to provide early security warning and effective incident response.
  • It operates on 24 x 7 basis and is actively engaging its users with early warning alerts and advisories.
  • It is aimed at catering to the needs of critical sectors, defence, banks, law enforcement & judiciary and e-governance project owners.
  • In the Information Technology (Amendment) Act 2008, CERT-In has been designated to serve as the national agency to perform the functions in the area of cyber security.
  • CERT-In has taken steps to implement National Information Security Assurance Programme (NISAP) to create awareness in government and critical sector organisations.

Bodoland Territorial Area Districts

The COVID-19 pandemic may earn Governor’s rule for the Bodoland Territorial Area Districts (BTAD) in Assam.

Details –

The State’s Governor is the constitutional head of the BTAD that falls under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution and is administered by the Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC).

What is Bodoland dispute?

  • Bodos are the single largest tribal community in Assam, making up over 5-6 per cent of the state’s population. They have controlled large parts of Assam in the past.
  • The four districts in Assam — Kokrajhar, Baksa, Udalguri and Chirang — that constitute the Bodo Territorial Area District (BTAD), are home to several ethnic groups.
  • The Bodos have had a long history of separatist demands, marked by armed struggle.
  • In 1966-67, the demand for a separate state called Bodoland was raised under the banner of the Plains Tribals Council of Assam (PTCA), a political outfit.
  • In 1987, the All Bodo Students Union (ABSU) renewed the demand. “Divide Assam fifty-fifty”, was a call given by the ABSU’s then leader, Upendra Nath Brahma.
  • The unrest was a fallout of the Assam Movement (1979-85), whose culmination — the Assam Accord — addressed the demands of protection and safeguards for the “Assamese people”, leading the Bodos to launch a movement to protect their own identity.

Background –

  • The first organised demand for a Bodo state came in 1967-68 under the banner of the political party Plains Tribals Council of Assam.
  • In 1985, when the Assam Movement culminated in the Assam Accord, many Bodos saw it as essentially focusing on the interests of the Assamese-speaking community.
  • In 1987, the All Bodo Students Union (ABSU) led by Upendra Nath Brahma revived the Bodo statehood demand.
  • The armed group Bodo Security Force arose, under the leadership of Ranjan Daimary, in October 1986. It subsequently renamed itself NDFB, and later split into factions.

What is BTC?

  • It is an autonomous body under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution. There have been two Bodo Accords earlier, and the second one led to the formation of BTC.
  • The ABSU-led movement from 1987 culminated in a 1993 Bodo Accord, which paved the way for a Bodoland Autonomous Council (BAC), but ABSU withdrew its agreement and renewed its demand for a separate state.
  • In 2003, the second Bodo Accord was signed by the extremist group Bodo Liberation Tiger Force (BLTF), the Centre and the state. This led to the BTC.

Bodo Accords 2020 –

  • The area under the jurisdiction of BTC, formed under the 2003 Accord, was called the Bodo Territorial Autonomous District (BTAD). Recently, the BTAD was renamed Bodoland Territorial Region (BTR).
  • BTAD comprises Kokrajhar, Chirang, Baksa and Udalguri districts, accounting for 11% of Assam’s area and 10% of its population.
  • The 2020 Accord makes Bodo the associate official language throughout Assam. The new Accord also promises to establish a separate directorate for Bodo medium schools, provincialise schools and colleges in the BTAD (Bodoland Territorial Autonomous District) and establish a Cultural Complex-cum-Centre of Excellence named after the late social activist Bodofa Upendranath Brahma in Kokrajhar for protection and promotion of the language.

Pitch Black 2020

Australia has informed India that its premier multilateral air combat training exercise – Pitch Black 2020 – scheduled from July 27 to August 14 has been cancelled due to the COVID-19 situation.

About Pitch-Black Exercise –

  • Exercise Pitch Black a biennial multi-national large force employment warfare exercise conducted by Australia.
  • The 2018 exercise saw participation of 16 nations and more than 140 aircraft and it was the largest Pitch Black ever conducted by Australia.
  • The first Pitch Black exercises took place in 1981 between different RAAF units.
  • Later in 1990, it began as training exercise between Australia and Singapore and then was expanded as multilateral exercises by inviting international air forces with which Australia has defence ties.

First merger of two black holes

For the first time since it started functioning, the gravitational wave observatories at LIGO scientific collaboration have detected a merger of two unequal-mass black holes.

Details –

The event, dubbed GW190412, was detected nearly a year ago, and this is almost five years after the first ever detection of gravitational wave signals by these powerful detectors.

About ‘Black Holes’ –

  • The term ‘black hole’ was coined in the mid-1960s by American Physicist John Archibald Wheeler.
  • Black hole refers to a point in space where matter is so compressed as to create a gravity field from which even light cannot escape.
  • Black-holes were theorised by Albert Einstein in 1915.

About LIGO Project –

  • It is a massive observatory for detecting cosmic gravitational waves and for carrying out experiments.
  • The objective is to use gravitational-wave observations in astronomical studies.
  • The project operates three gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Two are at Hanford, Washington, north-western US, and one is at Livingston in Louisiana, south-eastern US.
  • The proposed LIGO India project aims to move one advanced LIGO detector from Hanford to India.

Qissa Khwani Bazaar Massacre

Before the partition of the Indian subcontinent in 1947, the Qissa Khwani Bazaar was the site of a massacre perpetrated by British soldiers against non-violent protesters of the Khudai Khidmatgar movement on April 23, 1930.

Who were the Khudai Khidmatgars?

  • The Khudai Khidmatgar was a non-violent movement against British occupation of the Indian subcontinent led by Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a Pashtun freedom fighter, in the North-West Frontier Province.
  • Over time, the movement acquired a more political colour, leading to the British taking notice of its growing prominence in the region.
  • Following the arrest of Khan and other leaders in 1929, the movement formally joined the Indian National Congress after they failed to receive support from the All-India Muslim League.
  • Members of the Khudai Khidmatgar were organised and the men stood out because of the bright red shirts they wore as uniforms, while the women wore black garments.
  • The Khudai Khidmatgars opposed Partition, a stance that many interpreted as the movement not being in favour of the creation of the independent nation of Pakistan. Post 1947, the Khudai Khidmatgar slowly found their political influence decreasing to such an extent that the movement and the massacre 90 years ago in the Qissa Khwani Bazaar has been wiped out from collective memory.

Why did the Qissa Khwani Bazaar massacre happen?

  • Abdul Ghaffar Khan and other leaders of the Khudai Khidmatgar were arrested on April 23, 1930 by British police after he gave a speech at a gathering in the town of Utmanzai in the North-West Frontier Province. A respected leader well-known for his non-violent ways, Khan’s arrest spurred protests in neighbouring towns, including Peshawar.
  • Protests spilled into the Qissa Khwani Bazaar in Peshawar on the day of Khan’s arrest. British soldiers entered the market area to disperse crowds that had refused to leave. In response, British army vehicles drove into the crowds, killing several protesters and bystanders. British soldiers then opened fire on unarmed protestors, killing even more people.
  • Historical records suggest the British attempted to deploy the Garhwal Regiment against the civilians in the marketplace, but two platoons of this respected regiment refused to shoot at unarmed protesters. In retaliation, British officials court martialled the platoon members with upto eight years of imprisonment.

Ruhdaar

A team of engineering students from IIT Bombay, NIT Srinagar and Islamic University of Science & Technology (IUST), Awantipora, Pulwama, Jammu and Kashmir have come forward to solve the problem of ventilator requirement. The team has come up with a low-cost ventilator using locally available materials, known as Ruhdaar.

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