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Prelims Booster

10th October – Prelims Booster

Bhai Taru Singh

Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has bowed to Bhai Taru Singh Ji, on the occasion of his 300th birth anniversary.

Who was ‘Bhai Taru Singh’?

  • He was a prominent Sikh Martyr known for sacrificing his life for protecting Sikh values, having had his head scalped rather than cutting his hair or converting to Islam.
  • He was born in 1720 in Amritsar during the reign of Mughal Empire. He was engaged in agriculture at Poolha, Tehsil Kasur, in the Lahore district during the period when Sikhs were heavily persecuted by the Mughal Empire.
  • Upon watching Sikh fighters save a poor girl from the clutches of the Mughal oppressors Bhai Taru Singh decided to become a Sikh and initiated into the Khalsa.
  • During this time, Sikh revolutionaries were plotting the overthrow of the Mughal governor of Punjab, Zakaria Khan. Bhai Taru Singh and his sister gave food and other aid to the Gursikhs (Devout Sikhs of the Guru). An informant reported them to Zakaria Khan and the two were arrested for treason. Though his sister’s freedom was bribed for by the villagers, Singh refused to seek a pardon.

Story of valour –

  • After a period of imprisonment and torture, Bhai Taru Singh was brought before the Khan and asked him where he got his powers from to undergo all of the agony. His reply was through his Keshas (Unshorn Hair) blessed by Guru Gobind Singh. Zakaria Khan then gave him the choice of converting to Islam and having his hair cut off as an offering or being executed.
  • Upon his refusal to forsake his religion, Bhai Taru Singh’s scalp was cut away from his skull with a sharp knife to prevent his hair from ever growing back in a public display.
  • According to prominent early Sikh historian Ratan Singh Bhangu, in response to having his scalp torn off, Taru Singh cursed Zakaria Khan, saying he would be killed by his shoes.
  • According to Sikh sources, after cutting Bhai Taru Singh’s scalp Zakaria Khan was stricken with unbearable pain and the inability to urinate. As a last resort, Khan sent an apology to the Khalsa Panth for his persecution of Sikhs and begged for forgiveness.
  • It was suggested that if Khan hit himself with Bhai Taru Singh’s shoes his condition might be lifted. Although hitting himself with Bhai Taru Singh’s shoe did cure the Khan’s condition, he died 22 days later from having hit himself with the shoes, which is what Bhai Taru Singh had predicted.
  • Upon hearing the death of Khan and that he had outlived the Khan, Taru Singh died on 1 July 1745.

SVAMITVA Scheme

In a historic move set to transform rural India and empower millions of Indians, Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi will launch the physical distribution of Property Cards under the SVAMITVA Scheme.

Details –

  • The launch will enable around one lakh property holders to download their Property Cards through the SMS link delivered on their mobile phones. This would be followed by physical distribution of the Property Cards by the respective State governments.
  • The move will pave the way for using property as a financial asset by villagers for taking loans and other financial benefits.
  • Also, this is the first time ever that such a large-scale exercise involving the most modern means of technology is being carried out to benefit millions of rural property owners.

About SVAMITVA Scheme –

  • SVAMITVA is a Central Sector Scheme of the Ministry of Panchayati Raj, which was launched by the Prime Minister on National Panchayati Raj Day, 24th April 2020.The scheme aims to provide the ‘record of rights’ to village household owners in rural areas and issue Property Cards.
  • The Scheme is being implemented across the country in a phased manner over a period of four years (2020-2024) and would eventually cover around 6.62 lakh villages of the country.
  • About 1 lakh villages in the States of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Karnataka, and few border villages of Punjab & Rajasthan, along with establishment of Continuous Operating System (CORS) stations’ network across Punjab & Rajasthan, are being covered in the Pilot phase (2020-21).
  • All these six States have signed MoU with Survey of India for drone survey of rural areas and implementation of the scheme. These States have finalised the digital property card format and the villages to be covered for drone-based survey.
  • States of Punjab and Rajasthan have signed MoU with Survey of India for establishment of CORS network to assist in future drone flying activities.
  • Different States have different nomenclature for the Property Cards viz. ‘Title deed’ in Haryana, ‘Rural Property Ownership Records (RPOR)’ in Karnataka, ‘Adhikar Abhilekh’ in Madhya Pradesh, ‘Sannad’ in Maharashtra, ‘Svamitva Abhilekh’ in Uttarakhand, ‘Gharauni’ in Uttar Pradesh.

RUDRAM

New generation Anti Radiation Missile (RUDRAM) was successfully Flight tested onto a radiation target located on Wheeler Island off the coast of Odisha. The missile was launched from SU-30 MKI fighter aircraft

About RUDRAM –

  • The RUDRAM is first indigenous anti-radiation missile of the country for Indian Air Force (IAF), being developed by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
  • The missile is integrated on SU-30 MKI fighter aircraft as the launch platform, having capability of varying ranges based on launch conditions.
  • It has INS-GPS navigation with Passive Homing Head for the final attack. The RUDRAM hit the radiation target with pin-point accuracy. 
  • The missile is a potent weapon for IAF for Suppression of Enemy Air Defence effectively from large stand-off ranges. 
  • This first-of-its-kind missile in the IAF arsenal and can also be integrated with Mirage 2000, Jaguar, HAL Tejas and HAL Tejas Mark 2 in future. Currently, its primary test platform is Sukhoi Su-30MKI.
  • This new-generation anti-radiation missile (NGARM) with a strike range of around 100 to 150 km is the first indigenous air-to-ground missile developed by the DRDO, after the supersonic BrahMos, which has been developed jointly with Russia.

Nobel Peace Prize

Recently, the Norwegian Nobel Committee decided to award the Nobel Peace Prize 2020 to the United Nation’s World Food Programme (WFP) for its efforts to combat hunger and for its contributions to bettering conditions for peace in conflict-affected areas and for preventing the use of hunger being weaponised in war and conflict.

About Nobel Peace Prize –

  • In his will, signed by Alfred Nobel on November 27, 1985, he mentioned that one part of his fortune that went towards the Nobel Prizes would be dedicated to “the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses”.
  • The Nobel Peace Prizes have been awarded since 1901 and was not awarded on 19 occasions including 1914-1916, 1918, 1939-1943 among some other years.
  • This is because the statutes of the Nobel Foundation mention, “If none of the works under consideration is found to be of the importance indicated in the first paragraph, the prize money shall be reserved until the following year. If, even then, the prize cannot be awarded, the amount shall be added to the Foundation’s restricted funds.” Therefore, fewer awards were given during the two World Wars.
  • Overall, the prize has been awarded to 135 laureates, including 107 individuals and 28 organisations. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has been awarded the prize twice.
  • So far, the youngest laureate is Malala Yousafzai, who was 17 years old when she won in 2014 and the oldest recipient was Joseph Rotblat who was given the award at the age of 87 in 1995.

About World Food Programme –

  • The WFP, which was established in 1961 at the behest of the US president Dwight Eisenhower, is the world’s largest humanitarian organisation (certified as the largest by the Guinness World Records in 2002) committed towards its global goal of ending hunger by the year 2030. Eisenhower proposed to the UN General Assembly on September 1, 1960, that a, “workable scheme should be devised for providing food aid through the UN system.”
  • WFP provides food assistance in two ways, either by way of providing food or by meeting people’s food-needs by providing cash-based transfers. The cash-based transfers were launched for the first time in 2005 in response to the tsunami in Sri Lanka.
  • In 2019, WFP provided assistance to close to 100 million people spread across 88 countries by supplying them with over 4.2 million metric tonnes of food and $1.2 billion in cash and vouchers.
  • The organisation estimates hunger by the prevalence of undernourishment. The UN defines undernourished or food-deprived people as those individuals whose food intake falls below the minimum level of dietary energy requirements.
  • The headquarters of WFP is located at Rome, Italy.

MCQs

  1. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about the ‘SVAMITVA Scheme’?
  2. It aims to provide the ‘record of rights’ to village household owners in rural areas and issue Property Cards.
  3. The scheme is valid only in the 117 identified aspirational districts of India.
  4. The scheme is a Central Sector Scheme.

Select the correct codes from below –

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. All of the above

Answer – C

Explanation – SVAMITVA is a Central Sector Scheme of the Ministry of Panchayati Raj, which was launched by the Prime Minister on National Panchayati Raj Day, 24th April 2020.The scheme aims to provide the ‘record of rights’ to village household owners in rural areas and issue Property Cards. The Scheme is being implemented across the country in a phased manner over a period of four years (2020-2024) and would eventually cover around 6.62 lakh villages of the country. About 1 lakh villages in the States of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Karnataka, and few border villages of Punjab & Rajasthan, along with establishment of Continuous Operating System (CORS) stations’ network across Punjab & Rajasthan, are being covered in the Pilot phase (2020-21). All these six States have signed MoU with Survey of India for drone survey of rural areas and implementation of the scheme. These States have finalised the digital property card format and the villages to be covered for drone-based survey.

2. The SVAMITVA Scheme falls under the –

  1. Ministry of Rural Development
  2. Ministry of Panchayati Raj
  3. Ministry of Jal Shakti
  4. Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare

Answer – B

Explanation – SVAMITVA is a Central Sector Scheme of the Ministry of Panchayati Raj, which was launched by the Prime Minister on National Panchayati Raj Day, 24th April 2020.The scheme aims to provide the ‘record of rights’ to village household owners in rural areas and issue Property Cards. The Scheme is being implemented across the country in a phased manner over a period of four years (2020-2024) and would eventually cover around 6.62 lakh villages of the country. About 1 lakh villages in the States of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Karnataka, and few border villages of Punjab & Rajasthan, along with establishment of Continuous Operating System (CORS) stations’ network across Punjab & Rajasthan, are being covered in the Pilot phase (2020-21). All these six States have signed MoU with Survey of India for drone survey of rural areas and implementation of the scheme. These States have finalised the digital property card format and the villages to be covered for drone-based survey.

3. An anti-radiation missile aims to –

  1. Destroy the Air Defence System of the adversary
  2. Destroy the warships, vessels and submarines
  3. Target the nuclear stockpile of the enemy
  4. None of the above

Answer – D

Explanation – An anti-radiation missile (ARM) is a missile designed to detect and home in on an enemy radio emission source. Typically, these are designed for use against an enemy radar, although jammers and even radios used for communications can also be targeted in this manner. Most ARM designs to date have been intended for use against ground-based radars.

4. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about the ‘ARM Rudram’?

  1. It is the first indigenously anti-radiation missile of the country for Indian Air Force developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation.
  2. It is a potent weapon for suppression of enemy air defence effectively from large stand-off ranges.
  3. It was tested from the indigenously built LCA Tejas aircraft.

Select the correct codes from below –

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. All of the above

Answer – A

Explanation – The RUDRAM is first indigenous anti-radiation missile of the country for Indian Air Force (IAF), being developed by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). The missile is integrated on SU-30 MKI fighter aircraft as the launch platform, having capability of varying ranges based on launch conditions. It has INS-GPS navigation with Passive Homing Head for the final attack. The RUDRAM hit the radiation target with pin-point accuracy.  The missile is a potent weapon for IAF for Suppression of Enemy Air Defence effectively from large stand-off ranges. This first-of-its-kind missile in the IAF arsenal and can also be integrated with Mirage 2000, Jaguar, HAL Tejas and HAL Tejas Mark 2 in future. Currently, its primary test platform is Sukhoi Su-30MKI. This new-generation anti-radiation missile (NGARM) with a strike range of around 100 to 150 km is the first indigenous air-to-ground missile developed by the DRDO, after the supersonic BrahMos, which has been developed jointly with Russia.

5. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about the ‘UN World Food Programme’?

  1. It was founded in the year 1948 by the UNGA Resolution 46/1825.
  2. It aims to provide food assistance either by way of providing food or by meeting people’s food-needs by providing cash-based transfers.
  3. It was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in the year 2020.

Select the correct codes from below –

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. All of the above

Answer – B

Explanation – The WFP, which was established in 1961 at the behest of the US president Dwight Eisenhower, is the world’s largest humanitarian organisation (certified as the largest by the Guinness World Records in 2002) committed towards its global goal of ending hunger by the year 2030. Eisenhower proposed to the UN General Assembly on September 1, 1960, that a, “workable scheme should be devised for providing food aid through the UN system.” WFP provides food assistance in two ways, either by way of providing food or by meeting people’s food-needs by providing cash-based transfers. The cash-based transfers were launched for the first time in 2005 in response to the tsunami in Sri Lanka. In 2019, WFP provided assistance to close to 100 million people spread across 88 countries by supplying them with over 4.2 million metric tonnes of food and $1.2 billion in cash and vouchers. The organisation estimates hunger by the prevalence of undernourishment. The UN defines undernourished or food-deprived people as those individuals whose food intake falls below the minimum level of dietary energy requirements. The headquarters of WFP is located at Rome, Italy.

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