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Prelims Booster

16th October – Prelims Booster

Zojila Tunnel

Work on the Zojila Tunnel in J&K has begun recently. The tunnel will provide all-weather connectivity between Srinagar valley and Leh (Ladakh plateau) on NH-1, and will bring about an all-round economic and socio–cultural integration of Jammu & Kashmir (Now UTs of J&K and Ladakh).

Details –

  • It involves construction of a 14.15 Km long tunnel at an altitude of about 3000 m under Zojila pass (presently motorable only for 6 months in a year) on NH-1 connecting Srinagar and Leh through Dras & Kargil. It is one of the most dangerous stretch in the world to drive a vehicle & this project is also geo-strategically sensitive.
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi in May 2018, had laid the foundation stone for the ₹6,800 crore project, billed as Asia’s longest bi-directional tunnel, in Jammu and Kashmir.

About Zojila Pass –

  • Zoji La is a high mountain pass located in the Kargil district of Ladakh.
  • The pass links Leh and Srinagar and provides an important link between Union Territories of Ladakh and Kashmir.
  • Zojila pass remains closed during winters due to heavy snowfall, cutting off Ladakh region from Kashmir.
Sr No.Salient Features
1LengthZojila Tunnel length = 14.15 Km and Approach road length = 18.63 Km. Total project length is 32.78 km.
2Scope of Work14.150 km long Bi-directional tunnel without Egress/escape passage between Baltal and Minamarg. 18.63 Km approach road between Z-Morh tunnel and Zojila tunnels including two tunnels of length 433m and 1958m in approach road. Net Road length is 12 KMs. Road safety & avalanche protection structures such as Catch Dams, Snow Galleries, Cut & Cover, Deflector Dam etc.
3Construction PeriodZojila Tunnel = 6 YearsApproach road = 2.5 Years

Significance of the project –

  • The construction of Zojila Tunnel will provide all-weather safe connectivity between Srinagar, Dras, Kargil and Leh regions. The all-weather safe connectivity of the road is immensely important from the strategic point of view.
  • The construction of Zojila Tunnel shall bring about all round economic and socio-cultural integration of these regions which remains cut-off from rest of the country during winters due to heavy snowfall for about six months.
  • A tunnel in Zojila is the only viable alternative at present for a full year connectivity road. This tunnel when completed will be a landmark achievement in the history of modern India.
  • It will also be of great importance to the Defence of the country, in view of the fact that massive military activities along our borders in Ladakh, Gilgit and Baltistan regions are taking place.
  • Zojila Tunnel project shall bring to fruition, 30 years of overwhelming public demand of Kargil, Drass and Ladakh region.
  • This Project will make the travel on Srinagar-Kargil-Leh Section of NH-1 free from avalanches.
  • Project would enhance the safety of the travellers crossing Zojila Pass and would reduce the Travel time from more than 3 hours to 15 minutes.

OECD Working Group on GLP

India has been designated the ‘Vice Chair’ of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) Working Group of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), recognising the contribution of the Indian GLP programme.

What is ‘Good Laboratory Practice’ programme?

Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) is a quality system, which has been evolved by Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to ensure that safety data generated on various chemicals like industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals (Human and Veterinary), agrochemicals, cosmetic products, food/ feed additives, and medical devices, etc., can be relied upon by regulatory authorities.

NCGMA – Nodal agency in India –

  • The Department of Science and Technology (DST) established the National GLP Compliance Monitoring Authority (NGCMA) with the approval of the Union Cabinet on April 24, 2002.
  • NGCMA is the National body which grants GLP certification to test facilities (TFs) conducting safety studies on new chemicals of the above-mentioned categories in accordance with OECD Principles of GLP and OECD Council norms.

Need –

The non-hazardous nature of chemicals needs to be established through studies and data, which is examined by the regulators of the concerned countries to certify that the use of these chemicals does not pose any hazards to human health and the environment.

About OECD –

  • The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international, intergovernmental economic organisation of 36 countries.
  • OECD was founded in the year 1961 to stimulate world trade and economic progress.
  • Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI) and are regarded as developed countries. OECD members are democratic countries that support free-market economies.
  • It provides a platform for its member countries to compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify and share best practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its member nations.
  • OECD Secretariat is located in Paris, France.

Chapter Proceedings

The Mumbai police has begun “chapter proceedings” against Republic Editor-in-Chief Arnab Goswami who has been summoned by it.

What are ‘chapter proceedings’?

  • Chapter proceedings are preventive actions taken by the police if they fear that a particular person is likely to create trouble and disrupt the peace in society.
  • These proceedings are unlike punitive action taken in case of an FIR with an intention to punish. Here, the police can issue notices under sections of the Code of Criminal Procedure to ensure that the person is aware that creating nuisance could result in action against him, which includes paying a fine, in the absence of which, he could be put behind bars.

Which sections are used?

  • Generally a notice is issued to a person under section 111 of the CrPC whereby he is asked to present himself before the Executive Magistrate – an ACP-rank officer in a commissionerate of a deputy collector in rural areas – who has issued the notice.
  • The person has to explain why he should not be made to sign a bond of good behaviour. If the Executive Magistrate is not satisfied with the answer, the person is asked to sign a bond of good behaviour and produce sureties vouching for his/her good behaviour.
  • A fine amount is also decided – in accordance with the crime and the person’s financial capability – which the person would have to pay if he violates the conditions set in the bond.

What are the chapter proceedings generally used for?

  • Generally, when an ACP receives information that any person is likely to commit a breach of the peace or disturb public tranquillity or do any wrongful act that may probably occasion a breach of the peace or disturb the public tranquillity and is of opinion that there is sufficient ground for proceeding, he may in the manner hereinafter provided, require such person to show cause why he should not be ordered to execute a bond.
  • There is no need for even an FIR against a person for issuing a notice under section 107 of the CrPC (security of keeping peace in other cases). In this case the bond is signed for one year. Under section 110, a notice is served to a habitual offender who has a record of FIRs registered against him. In his case, he is asked to sign a bond for three years.

Why are such notices called chapter proceedings?

According to officers, since all the sections related to preventing of crime fall under a single chapter, it was colloquially called “chapter proceedings” and has since been used to refer to actions of this nature.

UN Human Rights Council

Pakistan has been re-elected to the United Nations Human Rights Council despite opposition from activist groups over its abysmal human rights records.

Details –

  • Among the five candidates from the Asia-Pacific region vying for four seats in the UN’s premier human rights body, Pakistan secured the highest number of votes.
  • In a secret-ballot voting in the 193-member UN General Assembly on that race, Pakistan secured 169 votes, Uzbekistan received 164, Nepal 150, China 139 and Saudi Arabia 90.
  • Under the Human Rights Council’s rules, seats are allocated to regions to ensure geographical representation. Except for the Asia-Pacific contest, the election of 15 members to the 47 member Human Rights Council was all but decided in advance because all the other regional groups had uncontested slates.

About UN Human Rights Council –

  • The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
  • The UNHRC has 47 members elected for staggered three-year terms on a regional group basis from 5 groups.
  • To become a member, a country must receive the votes of at least 96 of the 191 states of the UN General Assembly (an absolute majority).
  • The members are elected for a period of three years, with a maximum of two consecutive terms.
  • In electing Council members, the resolution provides that General Assembly members “shall take into account the candidates’ contribution to the promotion and protection of human rights and their voluntary pledges and commitments made thereto.”
  • The UNHRC holds regular sessions three times a year, in March, June, and September.
  • Members serve for a period of three years and are not eligible for immediate re-election after serving two consecutive terms.

MCQs

1. Zojila Pass connects –

  1. Kargil and Ladakh
  2. Leh and Ladakh
  3. Ladakh and Srinagar
  4. Srinagar and Leh

Answer – D

Explanation – Zoji La is a high mountain pass located in the Kargil district of Ladakh. The pass links Leh and Srinagar and provides an important link between Union Territories of Ladakh and Kashmir.

2. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about the ‘Zojila Tunnel’?

  1. It will provide an all-weather connectivity between Srinagar and Leh on NH-1.
  2. The proposed tunnel will be the longest bi-directional tunnel of Asia.

Select the correct codes from below –

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer – C

Explanation – Work on the Zojila Tunnel in J&K has begun recently. The tunnel will provide all-weather connectivity between Srinagar valley and Leh (Ladakh plateau) on NH-1, and will bring about an all-round economic and socio–cultural integration of Jammu & Kashmir (Now UTs of J&K and Ladakh). It involves construction of a 14.15 Km long tunnel at an altitude of about 3000 m under Zojila pass (presently motorable only for 6 months in a year) on NH-1 connecting Srinagar and Leh through Dras & Kargil. It is one of the most dangerous stretch in the world to drive a vehicle & this project is also geo-strategically sensitive. Prime Minister Narendra Modi in May 2018, had laid the foundation stone for the ₹6,800 crore project, billed as Asia’s longest bi-directional tunnel, in Jammu and Kashmir.

3. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about the ‘Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’?

  1. It is an intergovernmental economic organisation founded in 1961 with the aim to stimulate world trade and economic progress.
  2. Recently, India was admitted as an associate member of OECD in the year 2018.
  3. The Secretariat of the OECD is located in Paris.

Select the correct codes from below –

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. None of the above

Answer – C

Explanation – The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international, intergovernmental economic organisation of 36 countries. OECD was founded in the year 1961 to stimulate world trade and economic progress. Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI) and are regarded as developed countries. OECD members are democratic countries that support free-market economies. It provides a platform for its member countries to compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify and share best practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its member nations. OECD Secretariat is located in Paris, France.

4. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about the ‘chapter proceedings’ under the CrPC?

  1. It is a form of preventive detention method intended to prevent a person to create trouble and disrupt the peace in society.
  2. Under the chapter proceedings, the person is forced to enter into an agreement via bond of good behaviour with the Executive Magistrate.

Select the correct codes from below –

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer – D

Explanation – Chapter proceedings are preventive actions taken by the police if they fear that a particular person is likely to create trouble and disrupt the peace in society. These proceedings are unlike punitive action taken in case of an FIR with an intention to punish. Here, the police can issue notices under sections of the Code of Criminal Procedure to ensure that the person is aware that creating nuisance could result in action against him, which includes paying a fine, in the absence of which, he could be put behind bars. Generally a notice is issued to a person under section 111 of the CrPC whereby he is asked to present himself before the Executive Magistrate – an ACP-rank officer in a commissionerate of a deputy collector in rural areas – who has issued the notice. The person has to explain why he should not be made to sign a bond of good behaviour. If the Executive Magistrate is not satisfied with the answer, the person is asked to sign a bond of good behaviour and produce sureties vouching for his/her good behaviour. A fine amount is also decided – in accordance with the crime and the person’s financial capability – which the person would have to pay if he violates the conditions set in the bond.

5. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about the ‘UN Human Rights Council’?

  1. It is a United Nations body founded in the year 1950 after the signing of the UN Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 to promote and protect human rights around the world.
  2. All the members of the United Nations Generally Assembly vote to elect the 47 members of the UNHRC.
  3. A member serves a period of three years and is not eligible for immediate re-election after serving two consecutive terms.

Select the correct codes from below –

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. All of the above

Answer – B

Explanation – The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world. The UNHRC has 47 members elected for staggered three-year terms on a regional group basis from 5 groups. To become a member, a country must receive the votes of at least 96 of the 191 states of the UN General Assembly (an absolute majority). The members are elected for a period of three years, with a maximum of two consecutive terms. In electing Council members, the resolution provides that General Assembly members “shall take into account the candidates’ contribution to the promotion and protection of human rights and their voluntary pledges and commitments made thereto.” The UNHRC holds regular sessions three times a year, in March, June, and September. Members serve for a period of three years and are not eligible for immediate re-election after serving two consecutive terms. The elections are held amongst the members of the United Nations General Assembly to elect the members of the UNHRC.

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