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Prelims Booster

28th October – Prelims Booster

Infantry Day

Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has extended greetings on the occasion of Infantry Day.

About ‘Infantry Day’ –

  • It was on this day that first Indian infantry soldiers took part in an action to defend Indian territory from external aggression.
  • On October 26, 1947 the then Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, Hari Singh, signed the instrument of accession, making his state a part of Indian dominion, and thus paving the day for Indian troops to be deployed in the state to fight against Pakistani invaders.

Events –

  • On October 22, Pakistan had poured in thousands of regular soldiers in the grab of tribals as well as volunteers from the tribal areas of North West Frontier Province (NWFP) into J&K with the aim of forcibly occupying the state and integrating it into Pakistan.
  • The initial resistance to the invaders was given by the state forces of J&K. On October 26, after the Maharaja signed the instrument of accession the way was paved for India to send in its troops and ward off the Pakistani invaders on October 27.
  • The first Indian battalion which was rushed to Srinagar by air was 1 Sikh, commanded by Lt Col Dewan Ranjit Rai. The battalion was at the time stationed in Gurgaon but out of its four companies two were deployed in aid to civil authorities role away from Gurgaon to tackle the post Independence communal riots.
  • The battalion was intimated late at night on October 26 to move to Palam airport in New Delhi for being airlifted to Srinagar airfield the next morning. Since 1 Sikh had only two companies available with it, one battery of 13 Field Regiment, an artillery regiment, was provided to it in infantry role. All these troops assembled at Palam airport in the early hours of October 27.
  • Had 1 Sikh not been airlifted into Srinagar on time the airfield would have fallen into the hands of Pakistani invaders. Appreciating the gravity of the situation, Lt Col Dewan Ranjit Rai first made sure that the Srinagar airfield was secured and then rushed towards Baramulla to take on the invaders and stop them in their tracks.

BECA

India and the US has inked the landmark defence pact, Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA) for Geo-Spatial Cooperation. The deal would help both the countries in sharing high-end military technology, geospatial maps and classified satellite data between their militaries.

About BECA –

  • BECA enables sharing geospatial information, including nautical and aeronautical charts. The complete data, backed by highly accurate US satellites, helps in navigation as well as targeting military assets.
  • Under BECA, the two countries can exchange maps, nautical and aeronautical charts, commercial and other unclassified imagery, geodetic, geophysical, geomagnetic and gravity data.
  • Apart from the standard data, the agreement includes sharing of classified information as well, with safeguards in place to ensure that it is not shared with any third party.
  • BECA will allow India to use US expertise on geospatial intelligence and to enhance military accuracy of automated hardware systems and weapons like cruise, ballistic missiles and drones.

About GSOMIA –

  • It was signed in 2002 between India and USA.
  • GSOMIA paved the way for greater technology cooperation in the military sector.
  • It allows the sharing of classified information from the U.S. government and American companies with the Government of India and Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSU) but not with Indian private companies.

About LEMOA –

  • Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) is a logistics support agreement signed in 2016.
  • It gives both the nations access to each other’s military facilities. But it does not make it automatic or obligatory.
  • It is a tweaked India-specific version of the Logistics Support Agreement (LSA) which the U.S. has with several countries it has close military to military cooperation. 
  • The agreement will primarily cover four areas — port calls, joint exercises, training and Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief. Any other requirement has to be agreed upon by both sides on a case-by-case basis.

About COMCASA –

  • COMCASA is an India-specific version of the Communication and Information on Security Memorandum of Agreement (CISMOA). It comes into force immediately and is valid for a period 10 years.
  • It would facilitate access to advanced defence systems and enable India to optimally utilise its existing U.S.-origin platforms.
  • COMCASA allows India to procure transfer specialised equipment for encrypted communications for US origin military platforms like the C-17, C-130 and P-8Is.

Plasma Therapy

An ICMR study has found convalescent plasma was not associated with a reduction in progression to severe Covid-19 or all-cause mortality. At a recent media briefing, ICMR Director General Dr Balram Bhargava had said they were contemplating deleting convalescent plasma as a definitive therapy from the national guidelines for Covid-19 treatment.

What is ‘Plasma Therapy’?

  • In plasma therapy, the antibody rich plasma from a recovered patient is extracted and administered to a patient. The trials are trying to find out if the antibodies can help patients recover.
  • Each plasma donation would be used to treat 2 patients. The bank collects 500 ml of plasma, depending on weight.
  • In plasma donation, as opposed to blood donation, only plasma is extracted and the other components of blood are returned to the body.
  • Blood contains several components, including red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells, and plasma. During a whole blood donation, donors typically donate a pint (about a half litre) of blood. 500 ml of plasma can be donated every two weeks, while blood can be donated once in three months. 

Who can donate ‘Plasma’?

  • Those who had the disease, but have recovered at least 14 days before the donation can be considered — although doctors prefer a time of three weeks between recovery and donation.
  • People between the ages of 18 and 60, and weighing not less than 50 kg are eligible.
  • Women who have given birth are not eligible, as the antibodies they produce during pregnancy (after being exposed to the blood of the foetus) can interfere with lung function. People with co-morbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer are also excluded.

Indian Tsunami Early Warning System

The new Director of INCOIS has said that India is much safer against the threat of tsunamis than it was in 2004 due to the state-of-the-art tsunami early warning system established in the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS).

About Indian Tsunami Early Warning System –

  • The Indian Tsunami Early Warning System (ITEWS) was established in 2007 and is based at & operated by INCOIS, Hyderabad.
  • It is an integrated effort of different organisations including the Department of Space (DOS), Department of Science and Technology (DST), the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Survey of India (SOI) and National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT).
  • ITEWS comprises a real-time network of seismic stations, tide gauges and a 24X7 operational tsunami warning centre to detect tsunami-genic earthquakes, to monitor tsunamis and to provide timely advisories to vulnerable communities.
  • Indian scientists can detect large undersea earthquakes in Indian Ocean in real-time and provide a tsunami warning in 10-20 minutes after the earthquake occurs.
  • India is among the first few centres to introduce quantitative tsunami forecasts. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO (also known as UNESCO-IOC) accredited Indian Tsunami Early Warning Centre (ITEWC) as Tsunami Service Provider (TSP) for 28 Indian Ocean Rim (IOR) countries, along with Indonesia and Australia in 2011, for issuing regional warnings.

About Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services –

  • Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) is an autonomous organisation of the Ministry of Earth Sciences, located in Pragathi Nagar, Hyderabad.
  • ESSO-INCOIS was established as an autonomous body in 2007 under the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) and is a unit of the Earth System Science Organization (ESSO).
  • ESSO- INCOIS is mandated to provide the best possible ocean information and advisory services to society, industry, government agencies and the scientific community through sustained ocean observations and constant improvements through systematic and focussed research.

MCQs

1. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about the ‘Infantry Day’?

  1. It is celebrated annually to mark the participation of Indian Army soldiers in an action to defend Indian territory from Chinese aggression in 1962.
  2. The Infantry division of the Indian Army became the first line of defence in the war against Chinese PLA, therefore, Infantry Day is a commemoration of that service to the nation.

Select the correct codes from below –

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer- D

Explanation – It was on October 27, 1947 that first Indian infantry soldiers took part in an action to defend Indian territory from external aggression. On October 26, 1947 the then Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, Hari Singh, signed the instrument of accession, making his state a part of Indian dominion, and thus paving the day for Indian troops to be deployed in the state to fight against Pakistani invaders.

2. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about the ‘Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement’ that India has signed with the US recently?

  1. It will allow India and US to share only non-classified geospatial information, including nautical and aeronautical charts to help in navigation as well as targeting military assets.
  2. It will help India to enhance the accuracy of its automated hardware systems and weapons such as cruise, ballistic missiles and drones.

Select the correct codes from below –

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer – B

Explanation – BECA enables sharing geospatial information, including nautical and aeronautical charts. The complete data, backed by highly accurate US satellites, helps in navigation as well as targeting military assets. Under BECA, the two countries can exchange maps, nautical and aeronautical charts, commercial and other unclassified imagery, geodetic, geophysical, geomagnetic and gravity data. Apart from the standard data, the agreement includes sharing of classified information as well, with safeguards in place to ensure that it is not shared with any third party. BECA will allow India to use US expertise on geospatial intelligence and to enhance military accuracy of automated hardware systems and weapons like cruise, ballistic missiles and drones.

3. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

  1. India signed GSOMIA in the year 2002 with the USA which allows greater technology cooperation in the military sector in the form of sharing of classified information.
  2. India is also a signatory to the LEMOA which allows access to advanced defence systems and enable India to optimally utilise its existing US-origin platforms.
  3. COMCASA that India had signed with the US allows both countries to use each other’s military facilities for logistical use.

Select the correct codes from below –

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1 and 3 only

Answer – A

ExplanationAbout GSOMIA –

  • It was signed in 2002 between India and USA.
  • GSOMIA paved the way for greater technology cooperation in the military sector.
  • It allows the sharing of classified information from the U.S. government and American companies with the Government of India and Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSU) but not with Indian private companies.

About LEMOA –

  • Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) is a logistics support agreement signed in 2016.
  • It gives both the nations access to each other’s military facilities. But it does not make it automatic or obligatory.
  • It is a tweaked India-specific version of the Logistics Support Agreement (LSA) which the U.S. has with several countries it has close military to military cooperation. 
  • The agreement will primarily cover four areas — port calls, joint exercises, training and Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief. Any other requirement has to be agreed upon by both sides on a case-by-case basis.

About COMCASA –

  • COMCASA is an India-specific version of the Communication and Information on Security Memorandum of Agreement (CISMOA). It comes into force immediately and is valid for a period 10 years.
  • It would facilitate access to advanced defence systems and enable India to optimally utilise its existing U.S.-origin platforms.
  • COMCASA allows India to procure transfer specialised equipment for encrypted communications for US origin military platforms like the C-17, C-130 and P-8Is.

4. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about the ‘Plasma therapy’ method of treating COVID-19 patients?

  1. It involves using the antibody rich platelets from a recovered patient of the novel coronavirus to be administered to a patient.
  2. Anyone who has recovered from the novel coronavirus at least 14 days before the donation can be considered eligible for plasma donation.

Select the correct codes from below –

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer – D

Explanation – In plasma therapy, the antibody rich plasma from a recovered patient is extracted and administered to a patient. The trials are trying to find out if the antibodies can help patients recover. Those who had the disease, but have recovered at least 14 days before the donation can be considered — although doctors prefer a time of three weeks between recovery and donation. People between the ages of 18 and 60, and weighing not less than 50 kg are eligible. Women who have given birth are not eligible, as the antibodies they produce during pregnancy (after being exposed to the blood of the foetus) can interfere with lung function. People with co-morbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer are also excluded.

5. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about the ‘Indian Tsunami Early Warning System’?

  1. It was established in the year 2007 and is based at and operated by INCOIS, Hyderabad.
  2. It is an effort by the Ministry of Earth Sciences to detect tsunami-genic earthquakes, to monitor tsunamis and to provide advisories to vulnerable communities.
  3. In 2011, it has been accredited as the Tsunami Service Provider for 28 Indian Ocean Rim countries, along with Indonesia and Australia for issuing regional warnings.

Select the correct codes from below –

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. All of the above

Answer – C

Explanation – The Indian Tsunami Early Warning System (ITEWS) was established in 2007 and is based at & operated by INCOIS, Hyderabad. It is an integrated effort of different organisations including the Department of Space (DOS), Department of Science and Technology (DST), the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Survey of India (SOI) and National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT). ITEWS comprises a real-time network of seismic stations, tide gauges and a 24X7 operational tsunami warning centre to detect tsunami-genic earthquakes, to monitor tsunamis and to provide timely advisories to vulnerable communities. Indian scientists can detect large undersea earthquakes in Indian Ocean in real-time and provide a tsunami warning in 10-20 minutes after the earthquake occurs. India is among the first few centres to introduce quantitative tsunami forecasts. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO (also known as UNESCO-IOC) accredited Indian Tsunami Early Warning Centre (ITEWC) as Tsunami Service Provider (TSP) for 28 Indian Ocean Rim (IOR) countries, along with Indonesia and Australia in 2011, for issuing regional warnings.

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