Marrakech, in Morocco from 7 to 18th November 2016 saw the twenty-second session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 22) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC), the twelfth session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 12), and the first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA 1). More than 200 nations attended the conference and issued the “Marrakech Action Proclamation” to signal a shift towards a new era of implementation and action on climate and sustainable development.
Marrakech | Action Proclamation
- The proclamation stressed on the momentum on climate change worldwide, and in many multilateral fora. The momentum is seen as irreversible – it is being driven not only by governments, but by science, business and global action of all types at all levels.
- It called for the next level task to rapidly build on that momentum, together, to move forward purposefully to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to foster adaptation efforts, thereby benefitting and supporting the 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development and its Sustainable Development Goals. All this is seen achievable through political commitment to combat climate change, as a matter of urgent priority.
- All parties called to strengthen and support efforts to eradicate poverty, ensure food security and to take stringent action to deal with climate change challenges in agriculture.
- All parties called for urgently raising ambition and strengthening cooperation among themselves to close the gap between current emissions trajectories and the pathway needed to meet the long-term temperature goals of the Paris Agreement.
- All the parties called for an increase in the volume, flow and access to finance for climate projects, alongside improved capacity and technology, including from developed to developing countries. The developed countries reaffirmed their pledge of USD 100 billion fund mobilisation per year by 2020 to support climate action by developing countries.
- All the parties called for advancing of climate action and support well before 2020, to take into account the specific needs and circumstances of developing countries, the least developed countries and most importantly the countries vulnerable to adverse impacts of climate change.
- The parties to the Kyoto Protocol also encouraged the ratification of Doha Amendment (forwarded by the developing countries to raise the ambition of climate actions in the pre-2020 period).
- Moreover, they also called for all non-state actors to join their hands for immediate and ambitious action and mobilization.
Marrakech Action Plan | Indian Perspective
Most of the demands of India with relation to providing finance to developing nations, inclusion of sustainable lifestyle with minimum carbon footprint and a clear cut mention of flow of funds in the draft of the political proclamation has been accommodated. India’s demand to push for climate action for sustainable agriculture (COP 17, Durban) has also been accommodated alongside the principles of equity.
Marrakech Action Plan | An Analysis
- Marrakech’s negotiations and proclamation stressed upon a combined message to the US President-elect Donald Trump, anticipating a change in stance on climate action by the new administration of the United States.
- The negotiations built upon the need to have a climate treaty to come into effect much before the 2020 deadline set in Paris.
- The developed countries might have pledged only about USD 150 million at Marrakech but the developing countries have been able to insert a clause in the final proclamation calling for scaling up the financial resources beyond $100 billion, per year, after 2020.
- A strong solidarity between the developing countries was witnessed again in the Marrakech Conference, especially after a divided house that was witnessed during the Paris Conference last year, when developed countries managed to strike a chord with India and China through bilateral discussions.
The success of a multilateral agreement depends upon the fulfilment of commitments by all the concerned parties. For every effort that the parties seek, they would need finance and technology apart from a firm political commitment over the issue. The world needs all parties to act in synchronisation to keep the rise of the global average temperature well below 2°C in this century.