States to be asked to invoke Epidemic Disease Act
It has been decided that all States/UTs should be advised to invoke provisions of Section 2 of the Epidemic Disease Act, 1897 so that all advisories being issued from time to time by the Ministry/State/UTs are enforceable to tackle the spread of Novel Coronavirus outbreak.
About Epidemic Disease Act, 1897 –
- The Epidemic Act is meant “to provide for the better prevention of the spread of dangerous epidemic diseases”.
- Section 2 of the act empower the state government to take special measures and prescribe regulations as to dangerous epidemic disease.
- Section 2A of the Act empowers the central government to take steps to prevent the spread of an epidemic.
- According to Section 3 of the act,” Any person disobeying any regulation or order made under this Act shall be deemed to have committed an offence punishable under section 188 of the Indian Penal Code.”
Forcible dispossession of a person’s property is a human rights violation
The Supreme Court has reiterated that forcible dispossession of a person of his private property without due process of law is a violation of human rights.
- In a recent judgment, the court stressed that right to property is both a human right and a constitutional right — the latter under Article 300A of the Constitution.
- The verdict came on the acquisition of a few acres in Sikkim by the State’s Agriculture department in 1980 for building the Progeny Orchard Regional Centre.
Right to private property –
- Doctrine of Adverse Possession – It is a legal doctrine that allows a person who possesses or resides on someone else’s land for an extended period of time to claim legal title to that land.
- The state cannot trespass into the private property of a citizen and then claim ownership of the land in the name of ‘adverse possession’. Grabbing private land and then claiming it as its own makes the state an encroacher.
Constitutional position of ‘right to property’ –
- Originally fundamental rights Article 19(1)(f) guaranteed to every citizen the right to acquire, hold and against deprivation of his property. State can acquire on two conditions: (a) it should be for public purpose, and (b) it should provide for payment of compensation (amount) to the owner.
- After several controversies, many amendments were made which introduced Article 31 A, B, C to prevent Judicial Review of certain laws. Finally with the 44th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1978 Article 19(1)(f) and Article 31 from Part III were repealed.
- Article 300A in Part XII under the heading ‘Right to Property’ was introduced. It provides that no person shall be deprived of his property except by authority of law. Thus, the right to property still remains a legal and a constitutional right.
- It is not a Fundamental Right as it is not a part of the basic structure of the Constitution. It can be regulated i.e. curtailed, abridged or modified merely by an ordinary law of the Parliament (no CAA needed). It provides protection only against executive action (not legislative). There is no guaranteed right to compensation in case of acquisition or requisition of the private property by the state.
130th foundation day of National Archives of India
Recently, the National Archives of India celebrated its 130th foundation day with an exhibition named “Jallianwala Bagh’ at its premises in New Delhi.
About National Archives of India –
- The genesis of National Archives of India can be traced to the report of Sandeman, the Civil Auditor who had stressed the need of relieving the offices of congestion by the destruction of the papers of routine nature and transfer of all valuable records to a ‘Grand Central Archive’.
- In 1889 Professor G.W. Forrest of Elphinstone College, Bombay entrusted the job of examining the records of the Foreign Department of the Government of India made a strong plea for transferring all records of the administration of East India Company to a Central Repository.
- This led to the establishment of Imperial Records Department (IRD) on 11 March 1891 in the Imperial Secretariat Building at Calcutta (Kolkata).
- In 1911 the IRD was shifted to Delhi.
- After the Independence, the government of India rechristened IRD as the National Archives of India with Director of Archives as its head.
- In the year 1990, the office of the Director of Archives was re-designated as Director General of Archives.
- At present National Archives of India is an attached office under the Ministry of Culture and has a Regional Office at Bhopal and three Records Centres at Jaipur, Puducherry and Bhubaneswar.
Red-Crowned roof turtle
Red-Crowned roof turtle has been brought at Madras Crocodile Bank Trust.
About Red-Crowned roof turtle –
- It is also known as Bengal roof turtle, Red-Crowned roofed turtle.
- It is one of the 24 species endemic to India, is characterised by the bright colours such as red, yellow, white and blue on the faces and necks of the males.
- It is a freshwater turtle species found in deep flowing rivers with terrestrial nesting sites and native to India, Bangladesh and Nepal.
- Currently in India, the National Chambal River Gharial Sanctuary is the only area with substantial population of the species, but even this Protected Area and habitat are under threat.
- The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN): Critically Endangered
- Wildlife Protection Act (IWPA): Schedule I
- The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES): Appendix II
Deccan Queen Express
India’s Deccan Queen Express will be upgraded to German design Linke Hofmann Busch (LHB) coaches. With the up gradation to LHB coaches, the train will have better safety features and improved travelling experience – better suspension system and better riding comfort.
About Deccan Queen Express –
- Indian Railways’ Deccan Queen, which has been running between Mumbai and Pune since 1930, is the country’s first superfast train.
- Deccan Queen is the first long-distance electric-hauled train, first vestibuled train, first train to have a ‘ladies only’ car and the first train to feature a dining car.
- It is operated by the Central Railway Zone of the Indian Railways.