Prelims Booster

27th March – Prelims Booster

PRELIMS BOOSTER

Undisturbed mass nesting of Olive Ridleys at Rushikulya

Restrictions in place for the COVID-19 threat are saving lakhs of Olive Ridley turtles from possible disturbance by humans, especially tourists, while they are continuing mass nesting at Odisha’s Rushikulya rookery.

About Olive Ridley Turtles –

  • Also known as the Pacific Ridley sea turtle, Olive turtles are a medium-sized species of sea turtle found in warm and tropical waters, primarily in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
  • They are best known for their behaviour of synchronised nesting in mass numbers.
  • The Olive Ridley is classified as Vulnerable according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), and is listed in Appendix I of CITES
  • The Olive Ridley sea turtle has been listed on Schedule – I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 (amended 1991).
  • The sea turtles are protected under the ‘Migratory Species Convention‘ and Convention of International Trade on Wildlife Flora and Fauna (CITES).

Saudi King to chair virtual G20 summit

Leaders of the G20 (Group of Twenty) nations held a video conference to conclude the G20 Summit in wake of the COVID-19 fears. The virtual summit was led by King Salman bin Abdulaziz al Saud of Saudi Arabia, which is the current president of the economic grouping.

About the G20 –

  • G20 is an international forum that brings together the world’s 20 leading industrialised and emerging economies.
  • It consists of 19 countries and the European Union.
  • It is a forum for economic, financial and political cooperation.
  • It seeks to address the major global challenges and generate public policies that resolve them.

Background –

  • After the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997-1998, it was acknowledged that the participation of major emerging market countries is needed on discussions on the international financial system, and G7 finance ministers agreed to establish the G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors meeting in 1999.
  • With the start of the global financial crisis of 2008, the G20 became the main instrument to face the crisis. And for that, it was essential to involve the highest-ranking officials. Therefore, Presidents and Heads of State participated in the G20 summits.

Presidency of G20 –

  • Every year, G20 members elect a country to preside over the group.
  • The country that assumes the presidency organises the meetings, defines the agenda of priorities to be debated and decides which countries and organisations to invite.
  • The president is chosen by a rotation system. For this, the 19 member states of the G20 (the 20th member, which is the European Union, is not part of a group of countries) are divided into 5 groups, comprising of a maximum of four states:
  1. Group 1: Australia, Canada, United States, Saudi Arabia.
  2. Group 2: India, Russia, South Africa, Turkey.
  3. Group 3: Argentina, Brazil, Mexico.
  4. Group 4: France, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom.
  5. Group 5: China, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea.

Daily MCQs

1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about Rushikulya rookery? 1. Olive Ridley Turtles which are not native to Rushikulya were brought here as part of conservation efforts by the Indian government. 2. Rushikulya is one of the major rivers in Andhra Pradesh.

Correct! Wrong!

The Rushikulya River is one of the major rivers in the state of Odisha and covers entire catchment area in the districts of Kandhamal and Ganjam district of Odisha. The Rushikulya originates at an elevation of about 1000 metres from Daringbadi hills of the Eastern Ghats range. In 1993, biologists from the Odisha Forest Department and the Wildlife Institute of India learned that large scale nesting of Olive Ridley turtles was taking place near the mouth of the Rushikulya river. This area is the location of one of the largest mass nesting (arribada) sites of olive ridley sea turtles in India. The villages near the mouth are Pali Bandha, Puruna Bandha, Gokhara Kuda and Kantia Pada, where one can find the nesting sites of the olive ridley turtles. These villages basically are fishermen’s villages.

2. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about the ‘Olive Ridley Turtles’? 1. They are classified as ‘endangered’ according to the IUCN List. 2. They are listed on Schedule-I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

Correct! Wrong!

The Olive Ridley is classified as Vulnerable according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), and is listed in Appendix I of CITES. The Olive Ridley sea turtle has been listed on Schedule – I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 (amended 1991). The sea turtles are protected under the 'Migratory Species Convention' and Convention of International Trade on Wildlife Flora and Fauna (CITES).

3. The 2020 G20 summit will be held in -

Correct! Wrong!

The virtual summit being held in March 2020 was an emergency summit. The original G20 Summit is planned for November 2020 to be held in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

4. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct? 1. G20 was created during the 2008 global financial crisis. 2. The membership of G20 is held only by individual countries.

Correct! Wrong!

After the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997-1998, it was acknowledged that the participation of major emerging market countries is needed on discussions on the international financial system, and G7 finance ministers agreed to establish the G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors meeting in 1999. It consists of 19 countries and the European Union (the only multilateral grouping represented in the G20).

5. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about G20? 1. The G20 headquarters are located in Paris at the OECD building. 2. Each member country has hosted a G20 summit at least once since its inception.

Correct! Wrong!

G20 does not have a permanent headquarter as it is an informal summit. Every year, G20 members elect a country to preside over the group. The country that assumes the presidency organises the meetings, defines the agenda of priorities to be debated and decides which countries and organisations to invite. Not all member countries have hosted the meeting yet. For instance, India is yet to hold a G20 summit (planned for the year 2022).

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