Prelims Booster

11th September – Prelims Booster

Vishwanath Satyanarayana

Vice President of India Shri M Venkaiah Naidu inaugurated the 125th birth anniversary celebrations of the Kavi Samrat, Shri Viswanatha Satyanarayana, organised by the Viswanatha Sahitya Peetham. He described the literary genius as an embodiment of Indian culture and traditions.

About Vishwanatha Satyanarayana –

  • Vishwanatha Satyanarayana was a 20th century Telugu write. His works included poetry, novels, dramatic play, short stories and speeches, covering a wide range of subjects such as analysis of history, philosophy, religion, sociology, political science, linguistics, psychology and consciousness studies, epistemology, aesthetics and spiritualism.
  • Viswanatha’s wrote in both a modern and classical style, in complex modes. His popular works include Ramayana Kalpa Vrukshamu (Ramayana the wish-granting divine tree), Kinnersani Patalu (Mermaid songs) and the novel Veyipadagalu (The Thousand Hoods).
  • Most of Viswanatha’s novels depict evolving social conditions, and involve an in-depth analysis of culture as well as human nature and consciousness.
  • Among many awards, he was awarded the Jnanpith Award in 1970, the first for a Telugu writer, and Padma Bhushan in 1971.


Union Minister of State for Shipping Shri Mansukh Mandaviya has launched ‘SAROD-Ports’ (Society for Affordable Redressal of Disputes – Ports).

What is ‘SAROD-Ports’?

  • SAROD-Ports is established under Societies Registration Act, 1860 with the following objectives –
    1. Affordable and timely resolution of disputes in fair manner.
    2. Enrichment of Dispute Resolution Mechanism with the panel of technical experts as arbitrators.
  • SAROD-Ports consists members from Indian Ports Association (IPA) and Indian Private Ports and Terminals Association (IPTTA).
  • SAROD-Ports will advise and assist in settlement of disputes through arbitrations in the maritime sector, including ports and shipping sector in Major Port Trusts, Non-major Ports, including private ports, jetties, terminals and harbours.
  • It will also cover disputes between granting authority and Licensee/Concessionaire/Contractor and also disputes between Licensee/Concessionaire and their contractors arising out of and during the course of execution of various contracts.
  • ‘SAROD-Ports’ is similar to provision available in Highway Sector in the form of SAROD-Roads constituted by NHAI.

Backgrounder –

The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved amendments in the Model Concession Agreement (MCA). In January,2018.The amendments in the MCA, envisaged constitution SAROD-PORTS as dispute resolution mechanism for PPP Projects in the Major Ports.

Professor CR Rao

Padma Vibhushan Professor CR Rao was recently felicitated on the occasion of his 100th birthday.

He is remembered for path-breaking contributions in the field of statistics, for recognising and facilitating the critical role of data and computing to handle scientific and social challenges, for mentoring inspiring and nurturing generations of students and researchers and for developing world-class statistical infrastructure in India.

About CR Rao –

  • Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao was born in the small town of Huvina Hadagali (in 1920) in present-day Karnataka (in erstwhile Madras province).
  • He was an exceptionally good student, and completed a BA (Hons.) degree in Mathematics from Andhra University with distinction and first rank.
  • One of his friends took him to the nascent Indian Statistical Institute; the legendary Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis had established the institute 10 years earlier. The young C.R. Rao joined a training programme offered by the ISI.
  • In 1943, Professor Rao completed his MA in Statistics from Calcutta University, again with a first rank. By the age of 22, he had already published seven technical papers in mathematical statistics.
  • Mahalanobis recognised the potential of this young man, and C.R. Rao was deputed to Cambridge University in 1946 to assist in the analysis of some anthropological data. While he was at Cambridge, he registered for a doctoral degree under the guidance of the celebrated Professor Ronald A. Fisher. He returned to the ISI in 1948 after being awarded his Ph.D. and was appointed professor there the following year.
  • The statistical test used extensively in econometrics, widely known as Lagrange multiplier test, was developed by Professor Rao in 1947.
  • As India started building its institutional infrastructure after Independence, Professor Rao was instrumental in setting up our national statistical framework. During the 1960s, he served as Chairman of the Committee on Statistics of the Government of India. He also chaired the Committee on Mathematics of the Atomic Energy Commission and was a member of the Committee on Science and Technology. He was the moving force behind the International Statistical Educational Centre (ISEC) at the ISI, where students and government statisticians from developing countries could learn the techniques of statistics and the methods for establishing their national statistical bureaus.
  • Awards – He has been the recipient of countless awards and accolades. He was honoured with the Padma Vibhushan in 2001. The then President of the United States, George W. Bush, conferred the National Medal of Science on him in 2002. He received the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award from Prime Minister Nehru in 1963. The American Statistical Association awarded him the Samuel S Wilks Memorial Award in 1989. In 2011, he became the first non-European and non-American to receive the Guy Medal in Gold from the Royal Statistical Society of the United Kingdom. Professor Rao has been bestowed with 38 honorary doctoral degrees from universities located in 19 different countries.

Five Star Villages Scheme

The Department of Posts has launched a scheme called Five Star Villages, to ensure universal coverage of flagship postal schemes in rural areas of the country.

About the scheme –

  • The scheme seeks to bridge the gaps in public awareness and reach of postal products and services, especially in interior villages.
  • All postal products and services will be made available and marketed and publicised at village level, under the Five Star Villages scheme.
  • Branch offices will function as one-stop shop to cater all post office – related needs of villagers.
  • The schemes covered under the Five Star scheme include – i) Savings Bank accounts, Recurrent Deposit Accounts, NSC / KVP certificates, ii) Sukanya Samridhi Accounts/ PPF Accounts, iii) Funded Post Office Savings Account linked India Post Payments Bank Accounts, iv) Postal Life Insurance Policy/Rural Postal Life Insurance Policy and v) Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana Account / Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana Account.
  • The scheme will be implemented by a team of five Gramin Dak Sevaks who will be assigned a village for marketing of all products, savings and insurance schemes of the Department of Posts. The team of Gramin Dak Sevaks will conduct door-to-door awareness campaign on all schemes, covering all eligible villagers.

Breach of Legislative Privilege

Recently, a motion for breach of privilege was moved in the Maharashtra Assembly against a journalist.

Provisions in the Constitution –

  • The powers, privileges and immunities of either House of the Indian Parliament and of its Members and committees are laid down in Article 105 of the Constitution.
  • Article 194 deals with the powers, privileges and immunities of the State Legislatures, their Members and their committees.
  • Parliamentary privilege refers to the right and immunity enjoyed by legislatures, in which legislators are granted protection against civil or criminal liability for actions done or statements made in the course of their legislative duties.

What is ‘breach of privilege’?

  • While the Constitution has accorded special privileges and powers to parliamentarians and legislators to maintain the dignity and authority of the Houses, these powers and privileges are not codified. Thus, there are no clear, notified rules to decide what constitutes a breach of privilege, and the punishment it attracts.
  • Any act that obstructs or impedes either House of the state legislature in performing its functions, or which obstructs or impedes any Member or officer of such House in the discharge of his duty, or has a tendency, directly or indirectly, to produce such results is treated as breach of privilege.
  • It is a breach of privilege and contempt of the House to make speeches or to print or publish libel reflecting on the character or proceedings of the House, or its Committees, or on any member of the House for or relating to his character or conduct as a legislator.

Procedure –

  • The Legislative Assembly Speaker or Legislative Council Chairman constitutes a Privileges Committee consisting of 15 members in the Assembly and 11 members in the Council. The members to the committee are nominated based on the party strength in the Houses.
  • If the privilege and contempt are found prima facie, then the Speaker or Chairman will forward it to the Privileges Committee by following the due procedure.

Police and Judicial Custody

In India, the various procedures of the administration of the criminal law are governed by the legislation called the Code of Criminal Procedure or Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC), which came into force in 1973, after its enactment building up on the British era legislation.

Provisions of arrest –

  • Chapter 5 of the CrPC starting from section 41 lists the legal provisions about the arrest. Arrest primarily means putting restrictions on the movement of a person. It can be done by a police officer or officer of investigating agency if the officer is satisfied that the arrest is necessary: to prevent the person from committing the offence further, to prevent tampering if evidence, for proper investigation, to prevent the person from dissuading those acquainted with facts and more.
  • As per the provisions, an arrested person has the right to be informed about grounds of arrest and there is obligation on the person making the arrest, to inform about the arrest, to a nominated person. Arrested person also has the right to meet an advocate of choice during interrogation. The law also makes an examination by a medical practitioner mandatory after the arrest.
  • The arresting authority can not detain a person in custody for more than 24 hours without producing him or her before a magistrate as per section 57 of CrPC.
  • The Article 22 of the Constitution of India also has provisions for protection of a person during arrest of detention.

What is ‘police custody’ and ‘judicial custody’?

  • Whenever a person is arrested by police or investigating agency and detained in custody and if the investigation can not be completed in 24 hours, the person is mandated to be produced before a magistrate court. The section 167 of CrPC and subsequent provisions lay down procedures that may follow in various scenarios.
  • The magistrate may further remand the person to custody of police for a period not more than 15 days as a whole. The police custody means that the person is confined at a lock up or remains in the custody of the officer.
  • After lapse of 15 days or the police custody period granted by the magistrate, the person may be further remanded to judicial custody. Judicial custody means that the person is detained under the purview of the judicial magistrate is lodged in central or state prison.
  • Section 167 also has some amendments which are specific to individual states in the country. In some cases investigation agencies may not seek police custody immediately and one of the reasons can be judicious use of the maximum 15 days at their disposal. In some cases courts may directly remand a person to judicial custody, if the court concludes that there is no need of police custody or extension of police custody.
  • In judicial custody, the person can apply for a bail as per the CrPC chapter 33 pertaining to the bails and bonds. The judicial custody can extend up to 60 or 90 days as a whole, depending upon the maximum punishment prescribed for the offence.
  • An undertrial person can not remain in judicial custody beyond half the time period of prescribed maximum punishment.

Difference between the two –

  • Apart from basic differences pertaining to the purview and place of detention there are some basic differences between the two.
  • In police custody, the investigating authority can interrogate a person while in judicial custody, officials need permission of the court for questioning.
  • In police custody, the person has the right to legal counsel, right to be informed of the grounds which the police have to ensure.
  • In the judicial custody in jails, while the person under responsibility of the magistrate, the Prison Manual comes into picture for routine conduct of the person.

NSO Report on Education

According to the National Statistical Organisation’s (NSO) latest report on education, one in five students in India supplements school education with private coaching, including almost one in three at the secondary school level or Classes 9 and 10.

Findings of the report –

  • Private coaching fees make up almost 20% of the total cost of education for those in secondary and higher secondary school. In some States, such as West Bengal, students actually spend more on private coaching than on their regular school.
  • In the 75th round of the National Sample Survey, conducted between June 2017 and July 2018, households were surveyed on consumption related to education. The final report, which was published recently, shows that 19.8% of students at all levels — from pre-primary to graduate students — take some form of private coaching. Among Class 9 and 10 students, starting to prepare for the crucial board exams and admission tests, more than 30% do so.
  • Among these secondary school students, those from the cities and upper castes are able to access private coaching at far higher levels. More than 52% of urban upper caste boys take coaching, in comparison to just 13.7% of rural boys and girls from scheduled tribe communities.
  • Such coaching comes at a cost. The average annual expenditure on education for secondary school students is ₹9,013, of which ₹4,078 goes towards regular school fees. About ₹1,632, or just over 18%, goes towards private coaching. In higher secondary school, students spend more than ₹2,500, also about 18% of the total expenditure, on private coaching.
  • Some States in eastern India seem to spend more on private coaching than the rest of the country. In West Bengal, students at all levels spend an average of ₹3,769 on private coaching.

Daily MCQs

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