Prelims Booster

18th April – Prelims Booster


Post-Intensive Care Syndrome

After leaving the ICU, many patients may suffer from what is known as post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), which can happen to any person who has been in the ICU.

What is PICS?

  • PICS is defined as new or worsening impairment in physical (ICU-acquired neuromuscular weakness), cognitive (thinking and judgment), or mental health status arising after critical illness and persisting beyond discharge from the acute care setting.
  • Such patients may experience neuromuscular weakness, which can manifest itself in the form of poor mobility and recurrent falls.
  • Psychological disability may arise in a person in the form of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
  • The most common PICS symptoms are generalised weakness, fatigue, decreased mobility, anxious or depressed mood, sexual dysfunction, sleep disturbances and cognitive issues. These symptoms may last for a few months or many years after recovery.

Why it happens?

A combination of factors can affect aspects of an ICU survivor’s life, such as –

  • PICS may be induced if a person was on prolonged mechanical ventilation, experienced sepsis, multiple organ failure and a prolonged duration of “bed-restore deep sedation”.
  • 33 per cent of the people on ventilators may develop ICU-acquired muscle weakness (ICUAW). Along with this, 50 per cent of those who develop sepsis and up to 50 per cent of the patients who stay in the ICU for at least one week are also prone to ICUAW.
  • After leaving the ICU, over 30-80 per cent may develop problems related to cognitive function and other mental health issues, including difficulty in falling and staying asleep.

Software Technology Parks of India

In view of the challenges thrown by COVID19 outbreak and consequent lockdown, the Government has decided to provide relief from payment of rental to the small IT units operating out of the Software Technology Parks of India (STPI).  Most of these units are either Tech MSMEs or startups.

Details –

The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) has decided to provide rental waiver to these units housed in STPI premises in the country for 4 months period as of now.

About STPI –

  • Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) is an autonomous society under Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology, Government of India and it has 60 centres across the country.
  • It was established in 1991 with the objective of encouraging, promoting and boosting the export of software from India.
  • The STPI’s Governing Council’s Chairperson is the Union Minister for Electronics & Information Technology.

Chitra GeneLAMP-N

Chitra GeneLAMP-N is a diagnostic test kit that can confirm COVID19 in 2 hours at low cost. It has been developed by Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, an Institute of National Importance, of the Department of Science and Technology (DST).

Details –

  • The confirmatory diagnostic test detects the N Gene of SARS- COV2 using reverse transcriptase loop-mediated amplification of viral nucleic acid (RT-LAMP).
  • The test kit is highly specific for SARS-CoV-2 N-gene and can detect two regions of the gene, which will ensure that the test does not fail even if one region of the viral gene undergoes mutation during its current spread.
  • The detection time is 10 minutes, and the sample to result time (from RNA extraction in swab to RT-LAMP detection time) will be less than 2 hours.

What is Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP)?

  • It is a technique for the amplification of RNA.
  • It is used in the detection of viruses. 
  • In this method, a DNA copy of the viral RNA is generated by reverse transcriptase, and then isothermal amplification is carried out to increase the amount of total DNA.

Heavy metal ion detector

Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences (CeNS) has developed a compact solid-state sensor to detect the heavy metal ions in water. It is a portable device which can help onsite detection in remote areas.

Need –

  • Heavy metal ions such as lead, mercury and cadmium pose severe potential threats to living beings as they can easily be accumulated in the body and cannot be detoxified by any chemical or biological processes.
  • The health hazards associated with heavy metal ions in water demands the development of efficient and portable sensors for rapid onsite detection of these ions.
  • There is an urge to develop visual sensors, which can effectively detect heavy metal ions rapidly (within seconds) under ambient conditions.

About CeNS –

  • The Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences (CeNS) is an autonomous research institute under Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India.
  • The Centre was established in 1991 by an eminent liquid crystal scientist, Prof. S. Chandrasekhar.
  • DST provides core support to the Centre in the form of a grant-in-aid for conducting basic and applied research in nano and soft matter sciences.
  • It is being mentored by Nano-Mission of the Government of India.
  • CeNS is located at Jalahalli, Bengaluru.

Daily MCQs

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