Immunity Passports

20th June – Immunity Passports

Immunity Passports

In a recent article, Paul Romer suggested that as nations come out of lockdown, they should be adopting an “identify and isolate” strategy. To do this, they need to dramatically increase the volume of their testing.

Doing more tests –

  • His recommendation for the US is that everyone should be tested once every two weeks—an approach that translates to 25 million tests per day in that country alone. This frequency is necessary because there is no guarantee that someone who tests negative today will not get infected tomorrow.
  • It is only by testing everyone again and again that those who happen to test negative should be let to interact with others who are disease-free, while the infected stay locked down till they recover.

How can we test more?

  • In order to even consider this approach, tests need to be widely available at a low-enough cost for them to be iteratively administered at population scale.
  • Their results should be available as soon as possible after testing, so that infected people don’t end up infecting others while waiting for their results.
  • At present, there is no cost-effective test capable of providing near-instant results that has been approved. But this is what we need to be pouring resources into.

Health Passports –

  • Once this level of testing becomes a reality, countries will be able to issue health passports—certificates of a people having been tested recently and found to be negative.
  • Those in possession of these passports will be able to engage in activities that bring them in close contact with others. If at any time they test positive, they will have to isolate themselves till they are no longer contagious.

Immunity Passports –

  • For those who have recovered from the disease and are immune, countries will begin to issue immunity passports—universally accepted documents that confirm that the holder can no longer contract or spread the disease.
  • These documents will become pre-requisites for global travel—much like the yellow fever card you need, even today, to enter certain countries in West Africa.

Issues –

  • As more people recover from the disease, the world will start splitting along the lines of those who are immune to the disease and those who are not. When that happens, immunity passports may become yet another fault-line down which society begins to fracture.
  • As with most things, the affluent have a greater chance of recovering from a disease that, at its most extreme, requires long weeks of expensive treatment in intensive care. That being the case, immunity passports might become yet another manifestation of privilege.
  • When immunity passports deny opportunities to those who haven’t yet built up the necessary antibodies to not be a threat to those around them, it will affect the poor and marginalised more than the privileged. Immunity will become yet another invisible basis for social stratification—one more reason for denying access.
  • This, in turn, could give rise to perverse outcomes—forcing otherwise healthy people to get themselves infected in order to become eligible for the passport and thus the opportunities that open up.

Conclusion –

This sort of thinking might seem far-fetched, but it has taken hold of societies before. According to a recent article in The New York Times, it was exactly this sort of immuno-privilege that greatly exacerbated the social divide during the yellow fever epidemic in 19th century America.


QUESTION – Experts are suggesting the issuing of immunity-passports to all those who have recovered from the COVID-19 disease for them to travel globally and restart the economic cycle. However, it is also said that immunity passports have the potential to create a fault line in society. How? Discuss.

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