Prelims Booster

24th September – Prelims Booster

Ramdhari Singh Dinkar

Prime Minister Narendra Modi has paid tributes to the Rashtrakavi Ramdhari Singh Dinkar on his birth anniversary.

About Ramdhari Singh Dinkar –

  • Dinkar, was an Indian Hindi poet, essayist, patriot and academic, who is considered as one of the most important modern Hindi poets.
  • He remerged as a poet of rebellion as a consequence of his nationalist poetry written in the days before Indian independence.
  • His poetry exuded veer rasa, and he has been hailed as a Rashtrakavi (“national poet”) on account of his inspiring patriotic compositions.
  • He was a regular poet of Hindi Kavi sammelan on those days and is hailed to be as popular and connected to poetry lovers for Hindi speakers as Pushkin for Russians.
  • Dinkar initially supported the revolutionary movement during the Indian independence struggle, but later became a Gandhian. However, he used to call himself a “Bad Gandhian” because he supported the feelings of indignation and revenge among the youth.
  • In Kurukshetra (one of his major poetic works), he accepted that war is destructive but argued that it is necessary for the protection of freedom.
  • He was close to prominent nationalists of the time such as Rajendra Prasad, Anugrah Narayan Sinha, Sri Krishna Sinha, Rambriksh Benipuri and Braj Kishore Prasad.
  • Dinkar was elected three times to the Rajya Sabha, and he was the member of this house from 3 April 1952 to 26 January 1964, and was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1959. He was also the Vice-Chancellor of Bhagalpur University (Bhagalpur, Bihar) in the early 1960s.
  • During The Emergency, Jayaprakash Narayan had attracted a gathering of one lakh people at the Ramlila grounds and recited Dinkar’s famous poem: Singhasan Khaali Karo Ke Janata Aaati Hai (“Vacate the throne, for the people are coming”)
  • Some of his greatest works are Rashmirathi and Parashuram ki Prateeksha.

Brucella abortus S19Δ per vaccine

A Technology License Agreement (TLA) ceremony on “Brucella abortus S19Δ per vaccine” developed by ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) was held recently.

About Brucellosis –

  • Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases worldwide and also endemic in India causing huge economic losses to dairy industry due to infertility, abortion, birth of weak offsprings and reduced productivity.
  • Brucellosis is a bacterial infection that affects thousands of people worldwide. Avoiding unpasteurised dairy products and taking precautions when working with animals or in a laboratory can help prevent brucellosis.
  • Symptoms may include joint and muscle pain, fever, weight loss and fatigue. Some people develop stomach pain and cough.

About the vaccine –

  • In India, calf-hood vaccination is practiced using live attenuated B. abortus S19 strain for control of the disease.
  • B. abortus S19 strain is a very strong immunogen and provides lifelong immunity.  However, this vaccine strain has several drawbacks like – residual virulence to human and animals, not suitable for vaccination in adult animals, causes abortion when used in pregnant animals and also interferes with sero-diagnosis of clinical infection.
  • To overcome some of these drawbacks, a modified strain of B. abortus S19 has been developed at ICAR-IVRI. The vaccine candidate was developed under Department of Biotechnology  funded “Brucellosis network program”.
  • In the process of modifying the S19 strain, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure of the organism was altered through deletion mutation. The newly developed strain was named as B. abortus S19Δper. Vaccine potential of S19Δper has been evaluated in experimental small animal model and also in buffalo calves.
  • The vaccine has great demand in India and will be of immense help in the national control programme on brucellosis. The vaccine has DIVA capability meaning that it can differentiate between naturally infected and vaccinated animals.

Shuchi Scheme

The Karnataka government that is busy in tackling the COVID-19 pandemic has silently buried a vital hygiene scheme for adolescent girls. Distribution of sanitary napkins has come to a halt as no funds have been allocated this year for the ‘Shuchi’ scheme, a menstrual hygiene project.

About the ‘Shuchi’ scheme –

  • The scheme, started in 2013-14, was initially a Centrally-sponsored one. However, the Centre asked States to take over the scheme from 2015-16.
  • Every year, the Karnataka government has been spending a little over ₹49 crore on the scheme.
  • It was aimed at instilling awareness about menstrual hygiene even among girls in rural areas.

Central Pollution Control Board

The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has commemorated its 46th year of establishment recently.

About Central Pollution Control Board –

  • The CBCB was established on September 23, 1974 under The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 as a technical arm of Central Government for environmental research, monitoring, regulation and enforcement in the country. Later, it was entrusted with functions and responsibilities under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
  • Since its inception, CPCB is working tirelessly towards environmental protection in the country. Some of the pro-active actions of the Central Board include –
    • setting sector specific standards (86);
    • real time surveillance of more than 5,000 industries;
    • river basin studies, which led to genesis of Ganga Action Plan;
    • multi-city source apportionment studies; establishing extensive monitoring network and data management for public dissemination;
    • setting national ambient air quality standards; and
    • fixing water quality criteria.
  • CPCB’s actions have been critical in obviating steep environmental degradation expected of rapid industrial, commercial and population growth.
  • With increasing environmental challenges and mounting public expectations, CPCB is working to re-define pollution control technologies and management strategies.

Functions of CPCB –

  • It aids and advises the Central and State Government on matters related to prevention, improvement and control of Air and Water pollution.
  • It plans and organises training programs for people involved in activities for the prevention, improvement and control of Air and Water pollution.

Tele-Law Service

To commemorate the journey of it’s Tele-Law programme, union Department of Justice has released its first booklet “Tele-Law – Reaching the Unreached, “Voices of the beneficiaries”.

What is ‘Tele-Law’ service?

  • It is a program by the government where people can seek legal advice from lawyers through video conferencing available at the Common Service Centers, on the ‘Tele Law’ portal – a technology-enabled platform. 
  • Tele-Law programme was launched in 2017 to address cases at pre–litigation stage.
  • Especially designed to facilitate early detection, intervention and prevention of the legal problems, the Tele-Law service is proactively outreached to groups and communities through a cadre of frontline volunteers provided by NALSA and CSC- e Gov.
  • These grassroots soldiers have been additionally equipped with a mobile application to pre-register and schedule appointment of the applicants during their field activity. Dedicated pool of lawyers has been empanelled to provide continued legal advice and consultation to the beneficiaries.
  • Under this programme, smart technology of video conferencing, telephone /instant calling facilities available at the vast network of Common Service Centres at the Panchayat level are used to connect the indigent, down-trodden, vulnerable, unreached groups and communities with the Panel Lawyers for seeking timely and valuable legal advice.
  • A panel of lawyers will be provided by the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) in every state capital to advise the applicants through video conferencing.
  • The first phase will be implemented across 1800 panchayats in Jammu and Kashmir, North Eastern States, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.


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