Prelims Booster

27th March – Prelims Booster


Undisturbed mass nesting of Olive Ridleys at Rushikulya

Restrictions in place for the COVID-19 threat are saving lakhs of Olive Ridley turtles from possible disturbance by humans, especially tourists, while they are continuing mass nesting at Odisha’s Rushikulya rookery.

About Olive Ridley Turtles –

  • Also known as the Pacific Ridley sea turtle, Olive turtles are a medium-sized species of sea turtle found in warm and tropical waters, primarily in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
  • They are best known for their behaviour of synchronised nesting in mass numbers.
  • The Olive Ridley is classified as Vulnerable according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), and is listed in Appendix I of CITES
  • The Olive Ridley sea turtle has been listed on Schedule – I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 (amended 1991).
  • The sea turtles are protected under the ‘Migratory Species Convention‘ and Convention of International Trade on Wildlife Flora and Fauna (CITES).

Saudi King to chair virtual G20 summit

Leaders of the G20 (Group of Twenty) nations held a video conference to conclude the G20 Summit in wake of the COVID-19 fears. The virtual summit was led by King Salman bin Abdulaziz al Saud of Saudi Arabia, which is the current president of the economic grouping.

About the G20 –

  • G20 is an international forum that brings together the world’s 20 leading industrialised and emerging economies.
  • It consists of 19 countries and the European Union.
  • It is a forum for economic, financial and political cooperation.
  • It seeks to address the major global challenges and generate public policies that resolve them.

Background –

  • After the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997-1998, it was acknowledged that the participation of major emerging market countries is needed on discussions on the international financial system, and G7 finance ministers agreed to establish the G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors meeting in 1999.
  • With the start of the global financial crisis of 2008, the G20 became the main instrument to face the crisis. And for that, it was essential to involve the highest-ranking officials. Therefore, Presidents and Heads of State participated in the G20 summits.

Presidency of G20 –

  • Every year, G20 members elect a country to preside over the group.
  • The country that assumes the presidency organises the meetings, defines the agenda of priorities to be debated and decides which countries and organisations to invite.
  • The president is chosen by a rotation system. For this, the 19 member states of the G20 (the 20th member, which is the European Union, is not part of a group of countries) are divided into 5 groups, comprising of a maximum of four states:
  1. Group 1: Australia, Canada, United States, Saudi Arabia.
  2. Group 2: India, Russia, South Africa, Turkey.
  3. Group 3: Argentina, Brazil, Mexico.
  4. Group 4: France, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom.
  5. Group 5: China, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea.

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