COP 21 – Climate Change Conference in Paris

COP 21 

COP 21 or the Climate change conference in United Nations was held at Paris in December 2015.  The world leaders deliberated and discussed ways to cut down carbon emissions and stop climate change. The COP 21 was attended by 150 world leaders to discuss new global agreements to mitigate effects of global warming and cut down carbon emissions

The main focus of COP 21 was to find solutions and limit the rise in global temperatures not more than 2 degree Celsius above pre-industrial level.

COP21India played an important role in the COP 21 and vouched for climate justice. Prime Minister Narendra Modi called for all nations with high emissions to assume ambitious targets and to allow developing nations to grow.

India has called for “Common goal; but common and differentiated responsibilities” according to the current status of the countries. It is notable that India’s emission, accounts for only 3% energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Moreover India did not specify a definite cap on its emissions. China also committed to reduce fossil fuel emissions by 2030

With increasing demand of power supply, India is likely to see an upsurge in the coal production in coming years. Mr. Modi during the COP 21 announced launch of solar alliance between 120 countries to expand solar power along with other renewable energy sources to counteract that. India aims to produce 175 GHz energy from renewable sources by 2022. Another way suggested was to increase the forest cover in India to absorb more carbon dioxide and to invent more technology to make it’s energy sector efficient. Climate financing (clean energy fund) from developed countries to harness renewable energy and cut down carbon emission was one of the ways forwards put up by Mr. Modi


  • According to statistics Tibetian glacier known as roof top of the world known for its glaciers and its influence on world climate especially on monsoons is melting at a faster pace than expected.
  • The holy Namastu Lake in its vicinity has expanded by 50 sq km between 2000 and 2014. Experts say that rapidly increasing temperature is causing the increased glacier melting.
  • Glaciers in autonomous Tibetian region have shrunk by 15 % over the past 30 yrs
  • If melting continues at present rate 2/3 of the plateau’s glacier are likely to melt by 2050 impacting all nearby counties

Innovations in the Field of Science & Technology to curb Climate change and reach the Objectives of COP 21 


  • The tiny semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and forms the building blocks of all electronic devices
  • Used in high speed devices like laptops and computers
  • But beyond 2018 almost all the present designs will become obsolete
  • IISC SCIENTIST Invented and demonstrated a new transistor design
  • Already patented with the phenomena of vertical tunneling where in electrons tunnels through vertical barrier and hetro junctions consisting interface between layers of dissimilar crystalline  semiconductor to transfer electrons.


  • 15 times less power requirement
  • Improved battery life
  • Smaller than state of the art
  • Improved chip performance
  • New design consumes lower voltage
  • Less charge in idle state


  • To emphasize on “ reducing the use of fuel driven vehicles” 200 organizations participated in Konark International Cyclotron in Odisha on 29th Nov 2015.
  • Representatives from various educational institutions, NGO’s , Corporate houses and Govt. institutions participated in 40 Km cycle run from Puri to Konark City to mark the event.


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  • Cheap and energy efficient
  • Better life span

History and evolution of LED lamps

  • 1907 captain Henry Joseph observed that light was generated when electricity was passes through silicon carbide . This phenomenon was called Electroluminescence but he did not give much attention to this work.
  • A few years later Russian scientist observed that diodes he used in radio receivers used light when electricity was passes through them. Published this theory in Russian journal.
  • Based on Einstein’s quantum mechanics he explained light emission as an inverse of photoelectric effect
  • His Work done paved way for development of LED technology.
  • In 1950 BRITISH made a diode based on infra red emission from gallium arsenide(first infrared LED’s)
  • Scientists in Texas later  in discovered first infra red emission diode ; they had  used gallium arsenide by using  laser based diode
  • First led for which they acquired


  • In coming years we can expect Carbonic led s with quantum led LED’s
  • Computer controlled ,zero thermal heating LED’s
  • Major component of green technology of future
  • LED to reduce global warming

It is noteworthy that US EMBASSY MONITORING STATION  has recently declared Delhi as most toxic smog area in the country. The Air quality index (Delhi) is 372 which is in the hazardous category

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