Naval co-operation between India, US and Japan epitomises the strong and resilient relationship between the three democracies. The Malabar Exercise series, initiated in 1992 between the Indian and US Navies, have steadily grown in scope, complexity and participation into a multifaceted exercise with the participation of Japanese Maritime Self Defence Force (JMSDF).
Details of Malabar Exercise 2017
The 21st edition of the exercise, MALABAR-17 will be conducted in the Bay of Bengal from 10 to 17 July 2017.
The primary aim of this exercise is to increase interoperability amongst the three navies as well as develop common understanding and procedures for maritime security operations.
The scope of MALABAR-17 includes wide-ranging professional interactions during the Harbour Phase at Chennai and a diverse range of operational activities at sea.
The thrust of exercises at sea this year would be on Aircraft Carrier operations, Air Defence, Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW), Surface Warfare, Visit Board Search and Seizure (VBSS), Search and Rescue, Joint Manoeuvres and Tactical procedures.
Indian Navy – Malabar Exercise
The Indian Navy will be represented by the aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya with its air wing, guided missile destroyer Ranvir, indigenous stealth frigates Shivalik and Sahyadri, indigenous ASW corvette Kamorta, missile corvettes Kora and Kirpan, one Sindhughosh class submarine, fleet tanker INS Jyoti and Long Range Maritime Patrol Aircraft P8I.
Conclusion | Malabar Exercise
MALABAR-17 will be another milestone with participation of 16 ships, two submarines and more than 95 aircraft, towards strengthening mutual confidence and inter-operability as well as sharing of best practices between the Indian, Japanese and US Navies. The exercise is a demonstration of the joint commitment of all three nations to address common maritime challenges across the spectrum of operations and will go a long way in enhancing maritime security in the Indo-Pacific region, for the benefit of the global maritime community.
Admiral Sunil Lamba, Chief of the Naval Staff, is on an official tour to Singapore from 15 May 2017. The Admiral will be attending the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) 50th International Maritime Review (IMR), commemorating 50 years of the RSN which was formed on 05 May 1967, and International Maritime Defence Exhibition and Conference (IMDEX) 2017. Besides attending the IMR and IMDEX 17, the visit aims to consolidate existing Maritime Cooperation initiatives as well as explore new avenues.
India – Singapore defence cooperation | International Maritime Review
Defence cooperation between India and Singapore is robust and is primarily focused towards Maritime Cooperation. India signed a Defence Cooperation Agreement in 2003, which was renewed in 2015.
Indian Navy and Singapore Navy are partners in the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS), a Maritime Cooperation construct, conceptualized and pioneered by Indian Navy in 2008. Singapore Navy has stood shoulder-to-shoulder with Indian Navy to take this 21st century maritime construct forward. Both countries have been conducting the bilateral exercise ‘SIMBEX’ since 1994. The next edition of the exercise is scheduled to be conducted off Singapore from 18 to 24 May 2017.
Both navies also engage in Navy to Navy Staff Talks, which commenced in 2004. The 12thStaff Talks were conducted in March 2017 and the 13th Staff Talks are scheduled to be held in 2018.
The Singapore Navy has participated in all the MILAN-series interactions organized at Port Blair by the Indian Navy. Warships of both countries regularly visit each other’s ports.
The last visit by the Chief of the Naval Staff of the Indian Navy was by Admiral RK Dhowan in 2015 and the Singaporean Naval Chief Rear Admiral Lai Chung Han last visited India in Feb 2016 for the IFR 16 at Visakhapatnam. Both countries also enjoy healthy training cooperation by means of trainee and instructor exchange programs.
Maritime cooperation | International Maritime Review
India – Singapore share similar maritime challenges such as coastal security, large coastal shipping and fishing fleet, wherein both navies have opportunities to learn from each other’s experiences. In addition, ground exists for cooperation on a number of issues common to both navies.
Tejas, the Light Combat Aircraft today successfully demonstrated an Air-to-Air Beyond Visual Range (BVR) missile firing capability by releasing Derby Air-to-Air BVR missile in RADAR guided mode. The missile launch was performed in Lock ON after Launch mode for a BVR target in the look down mode and the target was destroyed.
The objective of the test was to assess the Derby integration with aircraft systems onboard Tejas including the aircraft avionics, fire-control radar, launchers and Missile Weapon Delivery System and to verify its performance.
The test was conducted on a Manoeuvrable Aerial Target at the Interim Test Range (ITR), Chandipur. The sensors at ITR also tracked the target and missile.
A safe separation was followed by missile guidance towards RADAR acquired target. The flawless launch was demonstrated with all on-board systems performing satisfactorily and the missile scored a direct hit on the target with the complete destruction of it.
The test firing achieved all its planned objectives. The Derby firing is a major step towards clearing BVR capabilities on LCA aircraft for FOC.
The 29th series of India–Indonesia CORPAT is scheduled from 09 – 25 May 17 with the opening ceremony being conducted from 09 -12 May 17 at Port Blair under the aegis of Andaman and Nicobar Command.
The Indonesian Naval Ship KRI SutediSenoputra has arrived at Haddo Wharf, Port Blair to mark the commencement of the 29th series of IND–INDO CORPAT today.
An Indonesian Maritime Patrol Aircraft also flew in with the Indonesian Naval delegation led by First Admiral BambangIrwanto to INS Utkrosh, Port Blair.
First Admiral BambangIrwanto called on Maj Gen PS Sai, Chief of Staff, Andaman and Nicobar Command and the delegation also interacted with Commodore AshutoshRidhorkar, the Naval Component Commander.
During the stay at Port Blair from 09 – 12 May 17, the visiting crew shall be engaged in interactions at various strata, including sports fixtures, ship visits, professional interactions and visits to places of historical and tourist interests. The closing ceremony of the CORPAT is scheduled at Belawan, Indonesia from 22 – 25 May 17.
Apart from securing the trade sea route, the Coordinated Patrol also serves to enhance mutual understanding and inter–operability between the two navies.
The CORPAT thus reflects the shared concerns between the two countries for the peaceful Indian Ocean for the benefit of the international community.
India-Indonesia defence ties
The close defence relations between India and Indonesia have been growing steadily with regular joint activities and exchanges of personnel between the Armed Forces of the two countries.
Under the broad ambit of this strategic partnership, Indonesian Navy (TNI AL) and the Indian Navy have been carrying out coordinated patrolling twice a year since 2002 near the International Maritime Boundary Line to keep this part of the Indian Ocean region safe and secure for commercial shipping and international trade.
Indian Navy successfully undertook the firing of BrahMos Land Attack Supersonic Cruise Missile from a ship today. This variant of Long Range BrahMos Missile was fired from Indian Naval Ship Teg, a Guided Missile Frigate, on a target on land.
About | Land Attack Variant
BrahMos Missile has been jointly developed by India and Russia, and its Anti Ship variant has already been inducted into Indian Navy.
Majority of the frontline ships of Indian Navy, like the Kolkata, Ranvir and Teg classes of ships, are capable of firing this missile.
Land Attack variant of BrahMos Missile provides Indian Naval Ships the capability to precisely neutralise selected targets deep inland, far away from coast, from stand-off ranges at sea.
This successful maiden firing of BrahMos Land Attack Supersonic Cruise Missile has significantly enhanced the prowess of Indian Navy and has placed India into the club of select few nations.
Details about BrahMos
BrahMos is a two-stage missile with a solid propellant booster engine as its first stage which brings it to supersonic speed and then gets separated.
The liquid ramjet or the second stage then takes the missile closer to 3 Mach speed in cruise phase.
Stealth technology and guidance system with advanced embedded software provides the missile with special features.
The missile has flight range of up to 290-km with supersonic speed all through the flight, leading to shorter flight time, consequently ensuring lower dispersion of targets, quicker engagement time and non-interception by any known weapon system in the world.
It operates on ‘Fire and Forget Principle’ adopting varieties of flights on its way to the target. Its destructive power is enhanced due to large kinetic energy on impact. Its cruising altitude could be up to 15 km and terminal altitude is as low as 10 meters. It carries a conventional warhead weighing 200 to 300 kgs.
Trails of guided Pinaka Rocket were successfully conducted at Integrated Test Range (ITR) Balasore in two phases on 12th and 24th Jan 2017 with range of 65 km and 75 km, respectively.
About Pinaka Rocket
The guided version of Pinaka incorporates Inertial Navigation Systems (INS)/ Global Positioning System (GPS) for the mid-course guidance with accuracy of 60m to 80m at all ranges. In the recent trials conducted, the desired accuracy has been achieved.
Pinaka has been design and developed for induction into Army after successful User Trials.
Two Regiments of Pinaka Unguided Version have already been inducted in Army.
Current trials have been conducted for demonstrating the feasibility of the development of Guided Version of Pinaka Rocket using the same Launcher and Ammunition Configuration.
Long Range Surface-to-Air Missile (LR-SAM) and Medium Range Surface-to-Air Missile (MR-SAM) are jointly developed by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), India and M/s Israel Aerospace Industry (IAI), Israel and as per literature available in Internet, M/s IAI, Israel refers this missile as Barak-8 missile system (upgraded version of BMS).
Versions of the BMS
LR-SAM is the Ship Launch Version and Project MR-SAM is the Land Launch Version of Barak-08 Missile systems.
MR-SAM detects incoming enemy aircraft while they are well over 100 km away and destroys them at range upto 70 km.
LR-SAM has got long range engagement capability to penetrate in deep water/land to intercept all types of aerial targets (like Subsonic & Supersonic Missiles, Fighter Aircraft, Maritime Patrolling Aircraft (MPA), Helicopter and Sea Skimming Missiles.
INS Khanderi, the second indigenously built Scorpene submarine, was launched at the Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL) in Mumbai.
INS Khanderi | Introduction
Khanderi is the second of the six submarines being built at MDL in collaboration with M/s DCNS of France, as part of Project 75 of Indian Navy.
The first one, Kalvari, is completing sea trials and will be commissioned shortly into the Indian Navy.
Khanderi has been launched into the water and after the trails it will be commissioned as INS Khanderi submarine into the Indian Navy for operational duty.
INS Khanderi | Scorpene-class submarine
The Scorpene class submarines are a class of diesel-electric attack submarine jointly being developed by the French DCN and the Spanish company Navantia and now by DCNS.
It features diesel propulsion and an additional air-independent propulsion (AIP) system.
They are 67 meters long, 6.2 meters wide and have 1,550 tonnes displacement.
The state-of-art features of the Scorpene include superior stealth and the ability to launch an attack on the enemy using precision-guided weapons. The attack can be launched with torpedoes, as well as tube launched anti-ship missiles, underwater or on surface.
Designed to operate in all theatres including the tropics, the submarines can undertake multifarious missions including anti-surface warfare, anti-submarine warfare, intelligence gathering, operations by special forces and mine laying etc.
INS Khanderi | Air-independent propulsion
Air-independent propulsion (AIP) is any technology which allows a non-nuclear submarine to operate without the need to access atmospheric oxygen (by surfacing or using a snorkel).
It can augment or replace the diesel-electric propulsion system of non-nuclear vessels.
It is based on the combustion of stored oxygen and ethanol to augment battery-powered propulsion.
INS Khanderi | Significance of AIP
Notably, a submarine is about stealth. It is a weapons platform not visible to the naked eye. AIP significantly improves stealth because it enables a submarine to generate electricity for services and battery charging and propulsion while completely submerged.
AIP systems also generate electricity, powering a submarine to operate and also generate oxygen, lighting and amenities for crew.
They enable conventional diesel-electric submarines to remain submerged for two to three weeks at a time. This significantly increases the risk of detection.
Another advantage is that the Non-nuclear submarines running on battery power or AIP can be virtually silent.
AIP submarine can stay under water for longer time compared to Diesel electric submarine.
INS Khanderi is a diesel electric submarine. Diesel electric submarine works on a diesel engine when submarine is on the surface, the minute it goes under water it works on electricity generated by the batteries. When the battery power is completed, the submarine need to come up to the surface and go back on diesel and it is vulnerable while reaching the surface.
The AIP need not reach the surface at all and can run the diesel engine inside with independent air and charge the batteries and need not come up on surface. So the submarine is not easily detected which is a great advantage. AIP submarine can stay under water for longer time compared to Diesel electric submarine.
As long as the submarine is under water it poses a big threat to the enemy and it is the biggest asset when it is under water. Nuclear submarines can remain under water till human endurance can last. America has a series of nuclear submarines; China has built 6 to 7 of them and promises to build more. China at the moment has 60 submarines as per US Department of Defence report.
INS Khanderi | Highlights of INS Khanderi
Khanderi uses precision-guided weapons including torpedoes as well as tube-launched anti-ship missiles, which can be launched underwater or on surface.
It can undertake multifarious types of missions typically undertaken by any modern submarine, i.e anti-surface warfare, anti-submarine warfare, intelligence gathering, mine laying, area surveillance, etc.
The submarine is designed to operate in all theatres, including the tropics.
All means and communications are provided to ensure interoperability with other components of a naval task force.
INS Khanderi | Conclusion
In 1999 the government had approved a 30-year submarine building plan for induction of 24 submarines in a phased manner. Unfortunately for various reasons it got delayed and India is lacking in the conventional submarines. The Indian Navy’s submarine arm will complete 50 years on December 8 this year.
The Indian Navy is aiming to have a 200-ship fleet by 2027 as per a maritime capability perspective plan in order to guard interests and assets of the nation in waters around them. Today we have 137 ships and submarines, our aspiration is to become a 200-ship Navy (by 2027).The nation and the government has accepted that the 21st century will be a maritime century.
The Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas and Airborne Early Warning & Control System (AEW&C) developed by DRDO will fly-past for the first time during the Republic Day Parade 2017.
Representing India’s stride in indigenous Defence Technologies, the DRDO contingent this year consists of the 155 mm/52 Calibre Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS) and Arudhra- the Medium Power Radar.
Tejas is indigenously developed by Aeronautical Development Agency, an autonomous society of DRDO and produced by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.
It is a light-weight and multirole four plus generation tactical fighter aircraft which can carry laser guided bombs and modern missiles to cause extreme damage to the target.
Tejas has been inducted into 45th Squadron of Indian Air Force. It is a move towards self-reliance in ‘Air Power’ requirement of the nation.
Tejas is the pride of the country and a step towards “Make in India” initiative.
About the Airborne Early Warning & Control System (AEW&C)
It is an ‘Eye in the Sky’. It is a force multiplier, developed by DRDO for IAF with Centre for Air Borne Systems (CABS) as nodal agency.
AEW&C system consists of multiple sensors for Surveillance and Signal Intelligence.
It helps in Air Defence operations and is capable of communicating using VHF, UHF, C-Band and SATCOM links for Network Centric Operations.
Induction of AEW&C into services will make the country self-reliant and position India in top five countries having this capability.
About the Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS)
It is an indigenous weapon system developed by DRDO under Prime Minister’s ‘Make in India’ initiative.
Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE); a Pune based premiere R&D establishment of DRDO is the nodal agency for design and development of ATAGS with industry partners namely Bharat Forge Limited and Tata Power SED.
ATAGS has excellent accuracy, consistency, mobility, reliability and automation and is capable of achieving 47 plus km range.
The armament system of the ATAGS which comprises 52 calibre Gun Barrel with Breech Mechanism, Muzzle Brake and Recoil System has been designed and developed to fire the 155 mm calibre ammunitions held by Army with enhanced range, accuracy and precision as well as greater fire power.
The system is configured with All Electric Drive technology for the first time in the world that will ensure maintenance free and reliable operation over longer periods of time.
About the Medium Power Radar
Arudhra has been indigenously developed by Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (LRDE), Bengaluru, an establishment of DRDO.
Arudhra is the first indigenous rotating active phased array multi-function radar with Digital Beam forming technology.
The radar covers 360 degree in azimuth and is capable of performing volumetric surveillance to detect and track aerial targets up to 400 km in range and 30 km altitude.
This radar can survive intense ECM environment and electromagnetic interference.
It is integrated with modern identification of Friend or Foe system to recognize enemy targets and is transportable by road, rail and Air.