First Solar Powered Train Launched | PIB Summary

Minister of Railways dedicated to the nation the first 1600 HP DEMU train with Solar Powered Coaches with a unique facility of Battery Bank.

Details

  • The entire electrical need of the coaches for Lighting, Fans and Information Display System will be met from the Solar Energy produced from the solar panels fitted in the roofs of coaches.
  • While this train has been manufactured by the Coach Factory of Indian Railways namely Integral Coach Factory (ICF), Chennai, its Solar panels and Solar systems have been developed and fitted by Indian Railways Organisation of Alternative Fuel (IROAF) Delhi.
  • This first rake has been commissioned and based at Shakurbasti DEMU shed in Delhi of Northern Railway. Twenty-four more coaches will be fitted with this system within the next 6 months. The first rake will be put in the commercial service over the suburban railway system of Delhi division of Northern Railway.

DEMU Trains

  • Normally, DEMU trains provide power for its passenger comfort systems – lights and fans – from a diesel driven generator fitted on its Driving Power Car (DPC).
  • IROAF has developed this system with a smart MPPT inverter which optimises power generation on a moving train to cater to full load even during the night.
  • The unique feature of Battery Bank through storage battery ensures sufficient electricity when the sunlight is not available.
  • The system helps in reducing Diesel consumption of the DPC and hence reduces carbon signature of these commuter trains by reducing CO2 generation by 9 Tonnes per coach per year.

Significance

A solar power DEMU train with six trailer coaches will save about 21,000 Litres of Diesel and thereby bring cost saving of Rs.12 Lac every year. Savings for a 10 coach rake with 8 trailer coaches will increase proportionately. These benefits will continue for entire 25 years’ life time of the rake. This will help in making DEMU commuter services better, more economical and environment friendly.

Other important facts

  • Indian Railways is trying to increase use of non-conventional sources of energy. More solar powered trains may be inducted in future. Indian Railways has already made a target of 1000 MW Solar Plants in next five-years.
  • Indian Railways is also taking several others environment friendly measures like Tea Plantation, Bio-toilet, Water-Recycling, Waste Disposal, using Bio-fuel CNG and LNG, Wind Energy etc.

Fuel Supply Agreement

The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs, chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi, has approved the signing of Fuel Supply Agreement (FSA) with the Letter of Assurance (LoA) holders.

Details of the Fuel Supply Agreement

  • Allocation of linkages for power sector shall be based on the auction of linkages or through Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) based on the competitive bidding of tariffs except for the State and the Central Power Generating companies and the exceptions provided in Tariff Policy, 2016. Coal drawal will be permitted against valid Long Term PPAs and to be concluded Medium Term PPAs.
  • The approved framework ensures that all projects with linkages are supplied coal as per their entitlement. This will ensure the rights of coal supplies for FSA holders and signing of FSA with LoA holders.
  • Allocation of linkages in future will be transparent and bidding based, barring some exceptions as per Tariff Policy. Future allocation/grant of linkages will be based on auction and/or tariff based bidding.  It attempts to make the optimal allocation of the vital natural resource across the power units.

Fuel Supply Agreement | Background 

  • The coal supply to the TPPs has been made as per the provisions of the New Coal Distribution Policy (NCDP), 2007. Till 2010, CIL had issued LoA for approximately 1,08,000 MW capacity and no new LoAs were issued thereafter due to the prevailing scarcity scenario.
  • The CCEA decision of 21.06.13 directed CIL to sign FSA with TPPs of about 78,000 MW capacity. The coal availability scenario has, now, emerged from scarcity to adequacy.
  • In this adequate coal availability scenario, the present policy proposes a fading away of the old linkage allocation policy and the emergence of a new linkage allocation policy based on transparent and objective criteria for the optimal utilization of the natural resources.
  • Coal linkage to the power sector is governed by provisions of the NCDP, 2007. Under the NCDP, a system of issuance of LoA was introduced wherein requests for Linkage/LoA are forwarded to MoP for its recommendations. These recommendations are placed before the Standing Linkage Committee (SLCLT) which authorizes the issue of LoA.

Fuel Supply Agreement | Benefits of the Policy

  • Coal available to all Power Plants in transparent and objective manner.
  • Auction to be made the basis of linkage allocations to IPPs; cheaper and affordable POWER FOR ALL.
  • The Stress on account of non-availability of linkages to Power Sector Projects shall be overcome. Good for the Infrastructure and banking Sector.
  • PPA holders to reduce tariff for linkage; the Direct benefit of the reduced tariff to Discom/consumers.

Boost To Transform Domestic Nuclear Industry

In a significant decision to fast-track India’s domestic nuclear power program, and give a push to country’s nuclear industry, the Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has given its approval for construction of 10 units of India’s indigenous Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR)The total installed capacity of the Plants will be 7000 MW. The 10 PHWR project will result in a significant augmentation of nuclear power generation capacity.

Focus – Cabinet approves construction of 10 units of India’s indigenous Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR)

Analysis

  • India has current installed nuclear power capacity of 6780 MW from 22 operational plants.
  • Another 6700 MWs of nuclear power is expected to come on-stream by 2021-22 through projects presently under construction.
  • In a first of its kind project for India’s nuclear power sector, the ten new units will come up in the fleet mode as a fully home-grown initiative. It would be one of the flagship “Make in India” projects in this sector.

Significance

  • With likely manufacturing orders of close to 70,000 crores to the domestic industry, the project will help transform Indian nuclear industry by linking our goal of a strong nuclear power sector with our indigenous industrial capacities in high-end technologies.
  • This Project will bring about substantial economies of scale and maximize cost and time efficiencies by adopting fleet mode for execution. It is expected to generate more than 33,400 jobs in direct and indirect employment. With manufacturing orders to domestic industry, it will be a major step towards strengthening India’s credentials as a major nuclear manufacturing powerhouse.
  • The ten reactors will be part of India’s latest design of 700 MW PHWR fleet with state-of-art technology meeting the highest standards of safety.
  • The approval also marks a statement of strong belief in the capability of India’s scientific community to build our technological capacities. The design and development of this project is a testament to the rapid advances achieved by India’s nuclear scientific community and industry. It underscores the mastery our nuclear scientists have attained over all aspects of indigenous PHWR technology. India’s record of building and operating PHWR reactors over the last nearly forty years is globally acclaimed.  
  • The Cabinet’s decision reflects the Government’s commitment to prioritize the use of clean power in India’s energy mix, as part of low-carbon growth strategy and to ensure long-term base load requirement for the nation’s industrialization.
  • It also supports India’s commitment to sustainable development, energy self-sufficiency and bolsters global efforts to combat climate change.

Local Treatment Of Urban Sewage Streams For Healthy Reuse

The Minister of Science & Technology, Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Minister of Foreign Affairs, The Netherlands, Mr. Bert Koenders and Lt. Governor of Delhi, Sh. Anil Baijal laid the foundation stone to mark the beginning of work on cleaning the Barapullah drain in New Delhi today.

Highlights

  • The highlight of the ceremony was the laying of the Foundation Stone for the on-site laboratory and pilot plant and the start of the cleaning and beautification of the Barapullah Drain (Cleaning the Urban Sewage) with the unveiling of an artwork.
  • The artwork represents Indo – Dutch collaboration for the LOTUSHR project in form of two flowers – ‘lotus’ and ‘tulip’, depicting the union of Indian and Dutch strengths.
  • There are many available technologies to clean Urban Sewage from rivers. Their implementation must go ahead with speed. At the same time, new decentralised technologies need to be constantly developed and tested.

Technologies adopted

  • Some new technologies could be more cost-efficient or better implementable in our context.With this in mind, Department of Biotechnology (DBT) and NWO, the Netherlands Science Agency announced a joint call for proposals for cleaning the Barapullah drain.
  • After a rigorous and robust selection process on both sides, the project “Local Treatment of Urban Sewage Streams for Healthy Reuse (LOTUS)” has been finalised for setting up a demonstration plant for cleaning the Barapullah drain.

Project LOTUSHR 

  • The project Local Treatment of Urban Sewage Streams for Healthy Reuse (LOTUSHR) is an Indo-Netherlands joint project funded by Department of Biotechnology(DBT), Govt of India and NWO/STW, The Govt of Netherlands.
  • The project has stakeholders from both Academia and Industry from India and Netherlands. It is coordinated by Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi with participation of The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi and National Environment Research Institute, Nagpur from India while Technical University Delft is coordinating it from The Netherlands, with participation of Environmental Engineering and Water Technology Department, UNESCO, Wageningen University and its Aquatic Ecology Department.
  • There is also a commitment from industry, especially from The Netherlands, in terms of both cash and kind towards the project.

Objectives

  • The project aims to demonstrate a novel holistic water management approach, that will produce clean water that can be reused for various proposes (e.g. industry, agriculture, construction etc.), while simultaneously recovering nutrients and energy from the urban waste water, thus converting drain into profitable mines. Special attention will be paid to pathogen removal and removing the conventional and emerging pollutants.
  • The project will develop an innovative pilot-scale plant, suitable to cope with Indian conditions in a location specific manner. The final design of the pilot plant will be scalable and modular, to fit into the highly populated urban terrain.
  • Dutch and Indian companies will contribute to the project by sharing their existing technologies, which may need adjustments for becoming functional in the pilot plant.
  • Architects like Schulte Holding will advise on incorporating these water treatment units in urban megacities. Engineers from DDA will help in site preparation and civil construction of the pilot plant.

Water Conservation Programme | PIB Summary

Union Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation Minister Sushri Uma Bharti launched Bundelkhand Water Conservation Programme at Bandri in Sagar District of MP

Water Conservation Programme | About

  • Ministry has prepared a master plan for artificial recharge of ground water in Bundelkhand region.
  • In UP region of Bundelkhand, around 1100 percolation tanks, 14000 small check dams/Nala bunds and 7200 Recharge pits/shafts have been identified.
  • In MP region of Bundelkhand, around 2000 percolation tanks, 55000 small check dams/Nala bunds and 17000 Recharge shafts have been identified.
  • As a part of ground water exploration, 234 wells in UP are proposed to be constructed in five districts of Bundelkhand i.e., Banda, Hamirpur, Jalaun, Chitrakoot and Mahoba. Similarly, 259 wells in MP are proposed to be constructed in the districts of Datia, Sagar, Damoh, Tikamgarh, Chhatarpur and Panna in the Bundelkhand region of the State.

Water Conservation Programme | Other initiatives

Ministry of Water Resources has taken up new initiatives under National Ground Water Management Improvement Schemes (NGMIS) with an objective to effectively improve ground water conditions in stressed blocks, ensure sustainability of resource both quantitatively and qualitatively, participatory approach in ground water management and institutional strengthening.

In Bundelkhand region of UP, six districts covering an area of 11851 sq km have been considered under this initiative. In Bundelkhand region of MP, five districts covering an area of 8319 sq km have been considered under this initiative.

Water Conservation Programme | ISBIG

  • The Minister informed that Incentivization Scheme for Bridging Irrigation Gap’ (ISBIG) scheme is being prepared by the Ministry with an objective to complete CADWM works along with correction of system deficiencies in canal network for bridging the gap between Irrigation Potential Created (IPC) and Irrigation Potential Utilised (IPU), improving the water use efficiency in irrigation and providing assured supply of water to every farm field and transfer of control and management of irrigation system to the Water Users’ Associations (WUAs).
  • In Bundelkhand region of UP, Betwa and Gursarai canal, Rajghat canal, Ken canal system, Gunta Nala dam and Upper Rajghat canal with target to bridge 17,1030 hact under this scheme is being proposed. The scheme will benefit Jhansi, Jalaun, Hamirpur, Lalitpur and Banda districts in Bundelkhand region.  In Bundelkhand region of MP Rajghat Canal Project with target to bridge 68007 ha under this scheme is being proposed. The scheme will benefit Tikamgarh and Datia districts.

Water Conservation Programme | Marathwada

Similar programme for Marathwada region of Maharashtra is also being launched. Seven schemes with target to bridge 53365 ha gap between IPC and IPU are being proposed. The scheme will benefit Aurangabad, Latur, Nanded, Prabhani, Nanded, Solapur and Osmanabad districts and involve an expenditure of Rs. 250 crore. An area of 3727 sq.km in Marathwada is proposed to be covered under National Ground Water Management Improvement Schemes involving an expenditure approximate of Rs. 380 crore. Aquifer mapping of 9101 sq. km. of area in Marathwada has been completed. Management Plan of 7775 sq. km has been submitted to Maharashtra government. Under Fast track implementation of water conservation schemes 50 new water bodies with estimated cost of about Rs. 60 crores with tentative potential creation of 5000 ha would be taken up.

Protection of Forests | PIB Summary

India is one of the mega diversity countries in the world with different types of forests. Officially 20 per cent of geographical area in the country is under forest cover. The National Forest Policy (1988) aims to increase the forest cover to one third. One of the main approaches is the protection of forests in India.

Protection of Forests | Issues

  • According to India State Forest Report released in 2015, the forest cover has increased by 5081 square kilometres between 2013 – 2015, increasing the carbon sinks by 103 million tonnes.
  • Though Mizoram has the highest 93 per cent forest cover, many north eastern states have experienced decline in green cover. The country faces numerous challenges in implementing its policies to protect and grow forests.
  • Protection of forests is done through implementation of Forest Conservation Act (1980) and through establishment of protected areas. The Government of India has established 597 Protected Areas of which 95 are National Parks and 500 Wild Life Sanctuaries. These comprise about 5 per cent of the geographical areas of the country. Different type of forests and scrub jungles are host to the diverse wild life including the tigers, elephants and lions.
  • Due to the rising population there is enormous pressure on forest land for extraction of forest based industries and encroachment for extension of agriculture. The rising conflicts between conserving forests for generating ecosystem services and diversion for developmental project poses one of the biggest challenges in managing the forest resources. 
  • It is estimated that the demand for timber is growing at a faster speed from 58 million cubic meters in 2005 to 153 million cubic meters in 2020. The annual growth of the forest stock can only supply 70 million cubic meters of timber, forcing us to import hard wood timber from other countries.

Protection of Forests | Steps taken by Government

  • In India 67 per cent of the rural household depend on firewood for cooking. About one million deaths are reported annually caused by the fumes of firewood for cooking.  In order to address this problem, Pradhan Mantri LPG Scheme ‘Ujjwala Yojana’ is implemented by Ministry of Petroleum and Gas that provides free LPG connections to BPL families in remote rural areas. This has provided access to clean and efficient energy to a large number of families in the countryside.
  • The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has given the call to celebrate world forestry day for 2017 with the theme of ‘forests and energy’.  The emphasis is to develop wood as a major source of renewable energy, to mitigate climate change and fostering sustainable development. By developing community wood lots and delivering clean and energy efficient wood stoves, millions of people in developing economies will have access to cheap and reliable supply of renewable energy.
  • The Climate Change Action Plan and the Green India mission attempts to address the issue of development of wood energy by establishing large scale tree plantations with the help of community participation.
  • National Afforestation Programme (NAP) aims at eco regeneration of degraded forests and Green India Mission (GIM) aims at increasing the forest cover along with improving the quality of the forests, including the farm and agro forestry.
  • Under GIM, six million hectares of plantations will be established every year on degraded forest land.
  • One of the main pillars of afforestation is to regrow the forests in lieu of diversion of the forest land for developmental purposes. Both the houses of Parliament passed the Compensatory Afforestation Bill in 2016. With a provision of Rs 42000 crores, and annual outlay of Rs 6000 crores will be made available to states to facilitate conservation, improvement and expansion of forest resources in the country. This Act provides institutional framework at both central and state levels to implement the compensatory afforestation programme. Additionally, this will generate 15 crore man days of direct employment in the remote forest areas of the country helping tribal population. 

Protection of Forests | Challenges

While implementing these green schemes, India faces enormous challenges.

  • The climate change directly impacts the survival of planted saplings.
  • The extension of dry areas and desertification is another big challenge that needs to be tackled with proper interventions. 

There is need for participatory models of afforestation in which the local knowledge helps to regenerate and manage the forest resources.

Protection of Forests | Way forward

  • Realising the strength of the tribal knowledge systems, the Prime Minister said” if there is someone who saved the forests, it is our tribal communities, and for them saving forests is part of the tribal culture”.
  • He called upon the people to take the pledge to collectively work to conserve forests and increase the tree cover. More forests mean more water that benefits farmers and future generations.
  • In ancient Indian tradition the Rishis, or those who are the learned and sages get energy from the forests. According to Rabindranath Tagore, life in forest is the highest form of cultural evolution. The sages derived intellectual and spiritual energy from the forests, living near trees and water streams.

Protection of Forests | Conclusion

Though the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation has laid out ‘wood energy from the forests’ as the main theme of International Forest Day, Indian tradition assigns much higher status and value to the living energy of the forests to attain spiritual and cultural regeneration of life. This seems to be more holistic in understanding the links between forests and energy.

Fertiliser Subsidy Reforms | RSTV

Government of India has decided to fast track the implementation of the Direct Benefit Transfer system for payment of fertiliser subsidy to farmers. From the upcoming Kharif season beginning from June, Rs 70,000 crore fertiliser subsidy (budgeted for 2017-18) will be distributed to companies based on the actual sales to farmers taken on point of sale machines installed at nearly 2 lakh retail points throughout India. This would be a substantial change from the present system in which the firms are paid subsidy on the fertiliser receipt at the terminus point or any approved godown of the district. Until October 2012, the companies were getting the subsidy on the dispatch of material from their respective factories. 

Fertiliser Subsidy | Why reform?

  • Currently, it has not been calculated that how much fertiliser subsidy each farmer will actually require due to which the it cannot be directly allocated to the farmers. Government is trying to control the leakage of the subsidy which occurs because the sale does not always happen to the farmer as it is done to washing powder, plywood manufacturers or other manufacturing units who use urea as a by-product.
  • During demonetisation, the government specifically asked the fertilizer companies to create ‘Point of Sales’ because they were arguing that fertilizers had to be disbursed which was a challenge at that point of time. Thus, the aim is to take the digital route to transactions between the farmer and the fertilizer company.
  • It will also allow them to possibly track where the consumption is happening. There were reports ofleakage to neighbouring countries like Bangladesh and Nepal as the sale happens in India but the product is transferred to these countries. If few farmers are buying the fertilizers in surplus, that can also be checked. It should be noted that the largest consumers of fertilizers in India are Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.

Fertiliser Subsidy | Issues

  • Government is not promoting ecological farming in a right manner as it is concerned with only three chemicals- NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), despite the fact that plants require at least 17 elements for their growth.
  • Although Government proclaims to promote organic farming, subsidy is being given to chemical fertilizers where there is huge discrepancy in the usage. We all know that the ratio of NPK usage should be 4:2:1, but in Punjab, this ratio is 61:19:1. Urea is cheap (in terms of price) in market so the farmers use it more often which creates imbalance and affects the yield which either goes down or becomesTherefore, the whole system of subsidy should look into overall benefits to agriculture.
  • Over-usage of fertilizer is a bigger issue than the fertiliser subsidy itself. It should be noted that in 1950, with the use of less NPK, the yield was more as compared to today’s productivity. Today, with the use of more NPK, lesser yield is being produced. Hence, there is a need to improve the organic content of the soil through organic farming or compost techniques.
  • A serious issue at hand is that the Government is selling compost at the same rate as of urea which would not push the farmers towards organic farming. It is essential that farmers should produce fertilizers in their fields through organic techniques. A cropping pattern should be followed to promote organic farming.
  • Even by efficiently subsidising fertiliser usage, we are not handling the issue at hand which is a fact that these subsidies will only help fertilizer companies to sustain their business. In the long run, farmer’s business will be affected badly because the input costs will continuously increase with outputs inversely proportional to it. Moreover, the end product is also unsafe for consumption. We should remember that instead of giving subsidies on chemicals, it is essential to incentivise those farmers who are practicing organic farming. If the subsidy is linked to productivity, it will remove fertilizer companies from the game. It is doubtful, if the corporates who rely on agri-business would welcome it if the Government tries to make such a move.

Fertiliser Subsidy | Way forward

  • State Governments and Central Government should work in tandem to encourage farmers to adopt ecological farming techniques, the momentum of which should be created through robust policies.
  • In western UP and Punjab, the farmers should be moved away from wheat and rice because the ground water has depleted to an alarming level.
  • Farmers need to be educated and taught to alter their cropping pattern and move to multiple cropping methods so as to reduce both their input costs and optimum utilisation of resources.

Ganga Rejuvenation | PIB Summary

Ganga Rejuvenation i.e. conservation and cleaning of river Ganga is a continuous and collective effort of Central Government, State Governments, Local bodies and general public.

Ganga Rejuvenation | Background

  • The Ganga Rejuvenation commenced in 1985 under Ganga Action Plan (GAP)-I. The GAP-I was completed in 2000.
  • While GAP-I was under implementation, GAP-II was started in 1993, which was later merged with National River Conservation Programme (NRCP).
  • In 2009, NGRBA programme was launched. In 2014, Namami Gange Programme, an Integrated Ganga Conservation Mission was approved. Namami Gange Mission, envisaged as an umbrella programme, aims at integrating previous & currently ongoing initiatives (e.g. projects under NGRBA programme) by enhancing efficiency, extracting synergies and supplementing them with more comprehensive and better coordinated interventions.

About Namani Gange Programme | Ganga Rejuvenation

  • Under Namami Gange Programme a holistic approach has been adopted to clean the river Ganga. The various types of pollution abatement schemes taken up to clean Ganga may be categorized into core and non-core schemes.
  • Core schemes include Interception and Diversion (I&D) of sewage discharging into the Ganga and creating treatment infrastructure to treat the intercepted sewage.
  • Non-Core schemes include providing Low Cost Sanitation (LCS) at community and individual levels at identified locations, installation of Crematoria (electric as well as wood based improved crematoria), River Front Development (RFD) including bathing ghats, River Surface Cleaning (Surface Skimmers), Afforestation, protecting biodiversity and creating public awareness and participation. 

Ganga Rejuvenation | Core- Area Scheme

The treatment capacities sanctioned/created so far for river Ganga are given below:

  • Under GAP-I and GAP-II 1098.31 Million liter per day (MLD) treatment capacity created.
  • Under Namami Gange Programme till 20thMarch 2017, 145 projects are sanctioned at an estimated cost of Rs 10,730.71 Crores. Out of these 72 projects are sanctioned for creation of 932.84 MLD new Sewage Treatment Plant (STP), rehabilitation of 1091.00 MLD of STP and laying/rehabilitation of 4031.41 km sewer network for abatement of pollution in river Ganga and Yamuna. Till date 13 projects are completed which has created 198.13 MLD STP capacity (153.1 MLD for river Ganga and 45 MLD for Yamuna river) and laid 1147.75 km of sewerage network.

Non-Core Area Scheme –

  • Low Cost Sanitation: Ganga Gram initiative has been conceptualized to promote rural sanitation in the villages located on the banks of river Ganga with an aim to reduce the pollution load on the river Ganga from such villages. The major activities included in Ganga Gram are making villages open defecation free, management of village solid and liquid wastes entering in the river and increasing pollution load, promotion of organic farming to control pollution from use of pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture, plantation of medicinal plants, rejuvenation of village ponds and ground water recharging, setting up crematoria etc. Till date, 1002456 Individual Household Latrines (IHHLs) have been constructed and 3253 villages have been declared open defecation free.
  • Crematoria and Bathing Ghats: Total 34 projects having 296 Bathing Ghats and Crematoria (180 Bathing Ghats + 116 Crematoria) have been sanctioned at an estimated cost of Rs. 1132.90 Crores and these projects are under various stage of implementation. River front development projects at Chandighat Haridwar, Assi Ghat Varanasi and Patna are also under implementation.
  • River Surface Cleaning:Surface skimmers machines for 11 cities, i.e. Rishikesh, Haridwar, Garh mukteshwar, Kanpur, Varanasi, Allahabad, Mathura-Vrindavan, Patna, Sahibganj, Nababdeep and Kolkata have been sanctioned, out of which machines at 3 locations i.e. Allahabad, Patna and Sahibganj are under operation.
  • An amount of Rs. 1039.79 crore has been spent on cleaning of river Ganga during the last three years.

Non-Polluting Industrial Projects | PIB Summary

Non-Polluting Industrial

The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change in consultation with Central Pollution Control Board has reclassified the industries into “Red”, “Orange”, “Green” and “White” category, as part of policies and objective of government to promote ‘Ease of Doing Responsible Business. Projects under the new category of “white”, which is practically non-polluting, will not require either Environmental Clearance under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 or Consent under Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 and Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. 

List of White Category Industries

Sl. No.

Industry Sector

1.

Air coolers /conditioners

2.

Bicycles, baby carriages

3.

Bailing of waste papers

4.

Bio fertilizer /bio-pesticides

5.

Biscuits trays

6.

Blending / packing of tea

7.

Block making of printing

8.

Chalk making

9.

Compressed oxygen gas

10.

Cotton and woolen hosiers

11.

Diesel pump repairing

12.

Electric lamp ( bulb) and CFL

13.

Electrical and electronic item

14.

Engineering and fabrication units

15.

Flavoured betel nuts

16.

Fly ash bricks/ block

17.

Fountain pen

18.

Glass ampules

19.

Glass putty and sealant

20.

Ground nut decorticating

21.

Handloom/ carpet weaving

22.

Leather cutting and stitching

23.

Coir items from coconut husks

24.

Metal caps containers etc

25.

Shoe brush and wire brush

26.

Medical oxygen

27.

Organic and inorganic nutrients

28.

Organic manure

29.

Packing of powdered milk

30.

Paper pins and u clips

31.

Repairing of electric motors /generators

32.

Rope (plastic and cotton)

33.

Scientific and mathematical instrument

34.

Solar module non-conventional energy apparatus

35.

Solar power generation through solar photovoltaic cell, wind power and mini hydel power (less than 25 MW)

36.

Surgical and medical products assembling

Non-Polluting Industrial

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Preservation of Biodiversity And Resources | PIB Summary

Important steps taken by the Government for preservation of biodiversity and resources

  1. Survey, inventorization, taxonomic validation and threat assessment of floral and faunal resources;
  2. Assessment of the forest cover to develop an accurate database for planning and monitoring;
  3. Establishment of a Protected Area Network of National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Conservation and Community Reserves;
  4. Designating Biosphere Reserves for conservation of representative ecosystems;
  5. Undertaking of species oriented programmes, such as Project Tiger and Project Elephant; complemented with ex-situ conservation efforts.
  6. In addition, Biological Diversity Act 2002 has also been enacted with the aim to conserve biological resources of the country and regulation of access to these resources to ensure equitable sharing of benefits arising out of their use, under which a National Biodiversity Authority and State Biodiversity Boards in all States have been set up for implementing the provisions of the Act.
  7. The Government has put in place several measures towards ensuring that interventions and activities in forest areas do no adversely affect the biodiversity. For ensuring protection of flora and fauna within protected areas, Management Plans are prepared by State Forest Departments which inter alia include a schedule of activities to be taken up over a period of ten years.
  8. The Wild Life (Protection) Act 1972 provides for diligence to be taken before approval of any activity is accorded by the State Government within a protected area.

Other measures of protection

  • In addition, the Central Government provides financial assistance to States and Union Territories under Centrally Sponsored Schemes such as: Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitat; Project Tiger, and Project Elephant for better protection and conservation of wildlife and their habitat; and Identification of Forest Management Scheme towards protection and management of forests.
  • The Government supports conservation of some prioritised/threatened medicinal plants harboured in specially designated Medicinal Plants Conservation Areas (MPCAs) that are primarily forested areas.
  • The National Afforestation & Eco-development Board of the Ministry promotes afforestation, tree planting, ecological restoration and eco-development activities in the country, with special attention to degraded areas as well as ecologically fragile areas.
  • Notwithstanding these measures, various non-forestry activities undertaken in forest areas for mining, industries, hydel power development, irrigation dams, railways, roads and other essential developmental activities may lead to destruction of forests and biodiversity in the diverted forest areas.
  • In order to compensate this loss of forest areas and biodiversity, compensatory afforestation on equivalent non forest land is done to compensate the loss of forest and biodiversity and such non forest lands are declared as Protected Forests/Reserve Forests under Indian Forest Act 1927.
  • In case of Central Government PSU projects, compensatory afforestation is done over twice the area of degraded forest area at the cost of user agency to improve and conserve the biodiversity in the degraded forest.