Cloud Seeding – An Overview

Cloud Seeding - ProcessExploding demand of water resources and continued population growth has giving rise to the problem of water scarcity in many regions of our planet. To meet the demand of water resources scientist have started using weather modification commonly called as cloud seeding.  Cloud seeding is a weather modification technique which involves the introduction of material into a cloud (using aircraft or ground-based generators) with a view to encouraging the formation and growth of ice crystals or raindrops and, in turn, enhancing the precipitation (snow and/or rain) falling from the cloud.

There are two basic types – cold and warm:

  • Cold cloud seeding (glaciogenic seeding) involves adding particles such as silver iodide crystals or dry ice pellets to the super-cooled (below freezing point) water already present in clouds to promote the formation of ice crystals. The ice crystals grow, fall and melt to below the freezing level to become raindrops.
  • Warm cloud seeding (hygroscopic seeding) involves adding salt particles (sodium, magnesium and calcium chlorides), which attract water into or just below the base of suitable clouds to enhance the growth of cloud droplets by coalescence.

Historically, most seeding experiments and operational programs have involved cold cloud seeding. Warm seeding is a more recent development, which has extended the range of potentially seedable clouds as it can be used on warmer clouds than those suitable for seeding with silver iodide

Cloud Seeding | It’s Effects

One major problem is that it is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify the impact of a cloud seeding operation over a wider area, without expensive, time consuming and detailed experimentation and evaluation. Natural variability in rainfall is high, both in spatial and temporal terms, and it is difficult to predict what would have happened in an area had cloud seeding not taken place, despite the use of controlled experiments. It is difficult to design a practical cloud seeding campaign that has sufficient statistical rigour to prove or disprove the effectiveness of the seeding. Experiments using appropriate statistical design criteria may need  to run for many years in order to detect with reasonable certainty a rainfall enhancement signal against the ‘noise’ of the natural variability of rainfall. Many cloud seeding trials have suffered because of the inability of the design to produce unequivocal signals of the effect of cloud seeding. In addition, clouds amenable to seeding may not be present for a significant fraction of the time – for example the 1979-1980 Victorian experiment was abandoned due to a lack of suitable clouds.

Another disadvantage with cloud seeding is the high operational cost without commensurate assurance of success or economic return. Other issues include the possibility of downwind effects (decreased rainfall downwind from the target area), possible ecological impact of minute traces of seeding chemicals on sensitive terrestrial ecosystems, legal challenges, and overselling the technology without supporting scientific understanding and robust evidence. Experience has shown the importance of community engagement and consultation.

Overall we can say that Cloud Seeding is a mixed bag with it’s own pros and cons and so far is being treated as a controversial issue.

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News Update : 21st Jan. 2016

News Update : 21st day of Jan. 2016

News update covers the essential news articles from various newspapers segregated according to various subjects falling under the realm of civil services preparations.

The aspirants are advised to make their own notes for future reference (Point wise)

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[accordion_content accordion_label=”Economy”]

  1. Rupee slumps to touch pre-Rajan era level as bears grip stocks
  2. The hidden wealth of nations
  3. Dealing with the slowdown
  4. A just exemption

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[accordion_content accordion_label=”International Relations and Security”]

  1. Polarisation in Malda
  2. Militants storm Pakistan university, kill at least 20
  3. Delays disappointing, Indian policy needs to change: Iran

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[accordion_content accordion_label=”Polity and Governance”]

  1. Cabinet nod for power tariff policy
  2. The case for going universal
  3. Questioning the axioms
  4. The new quota

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  1. Carcasses of over 150 Olive Ridley turtles found
  2. New class of frogs found in the north-east
  3. ‘2015 was Earth’s hottest in modern times, by far’
  4. Ending open defecation
  5. It’s like killing a child

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  1. ISRO puts fifth GPS satellite in orbit

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[accordion_content accordion_label=”General Reading”]

  1. PMO exerts pressure, data released
  2. Commerce ministry backs measures to boost SEZs
  3. Forging PPP of a different kind
  4. Of deaths and births
  5. Shifting India to clean energy
  6. ‘37% children under age 5 stunted’

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News Update : 24th Dec. 2015

News Update : 24th day of Dec. 2015

News update covers the essential news articles from various newspapers segregated according to various subjects falling under the realm of civil services preparations.

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[accordion_content accordion_label=”Economy”]

  1. Rs. 1.4 lakh crore cess money lies idle
  2. Weak balance sheets, bad loans increase risks for banks: RBI
  3. Why no corporate bond market?
  4. RBI sees big problem with big borrowers

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[accordion_content accordion_label=”International Relations and Security”]

  1. Worst Human Tragedy of 2015
  2. ‘Seychelles committed to Indian naval base’
  3. India should reclaim its space in Afghanistan
  4. What all is at stake as PM Narendra Modi visits Russia

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[accordion_content accordion_label=”Polity and Governance”]

  1. Winter session ends in deep frost
  2. Rural development, farm spending rises by 10%
  3. Supreme error
  4. The good news
  5. Winter chill
  6. Min Starts Work on MoP for Judges Appointment
  7. Parliament passes bonus Bill; benefits to accrue from April 2014

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[accordion_content accordion_label=”Science & Technology”]

  1. Indian American professor wins top honour for research on tumours
  2. Indian startup grows human liver in lab
  3. Unfree basics

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  1. Rage of the self-righteous Republic
  2. For now, ‘Make in India’ is a mere slogan
  3. Decoding social sector innovations
  4. A fair, efficient, and feasible climate agreement

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News Update : 23rd Dec. 2015

News Update : 23rd day of Dec. 2015

News update covers the essential news articles from various newspapers segregated according to various subjects falling under the realm of civil services preparations.

The aspirants are advised to make their own notes for future reference (Point wise)

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[accordion_content accordion_label=”Economy”]

  1. Government says it protected India’s interests at WTO talks
  2. Paris to Nairobi
  3. Mid-year review: Macroeconomic policy rethink required
  4. The positive side of Fed rate hike

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[accordion_content accordion_label=”International Relations and Security”]

  1. Modi’s visit to reassure Moscow
  2. Zhengzhou emerges a major hub along the New Silk Road
  3. In the spirit of South Asianism

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[accordion_content accordion_label=”Polity and Governance”]

  1. Sensing public mood, Rajya Sabha clears Juvenile Justice Bill
  2. Parliament veers away from history
  3. Misdiagnosis of the Rajya Sabha malfunction
  4. Will the juvenile ever walk free again?
  5. Infratweets: Reforming the coal sector

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[accordion_content accordion_label=”Science & Technology”]

  1. Free Basics vs Internet Saviours
  2. Finally, Govt may Write a Code for Software Sector
  3. IISc makes Big Impact on Small World of Chips

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[accordion_content accordion_label=”In other News”]

  1. An arbitrary cutoff
  2. Make amends
  3. Defence reforms: time to execute the vision
  4. What is behind the regional variation in adult mortality in India?
  5. India’s credit boom, and bust
  6. Analysing the Analysis

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News Update : 19th Dec. 2015

News Update : 19th day of Dec. 2015

News update covers the essential news articles from various newspapers segregated according to various subjects falling under the realm of civil services preparations.

The aspirants are advised to make their own notes for future reference (Point wise)

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[accordion_content accordion_label=”Economy”]

  1. Govt. lowers growth outlook, stresses supply-side reforms
  2. Shades of grey
  3. Cut Loose on Fiscal Goals, But First Grow
  4. Sahara, Saradha…Pearl…
  5. India’s quest for oil and gas: More questions than answers

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[accordion_content accordion_label=”International Relations and Security”]

  1. It was a ‘framework pact’ with NSCN (IM)
  2. ‘Neighbourhood first’ on track: Sushma

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[accordion_content accordion_label=”Polity and Governance”]

  1. Opposition agrees to clear 6 Bills as GST is out of the way
  2. No legal provision to detain ‘juvenile’ further: Delhi HC
  3. The coming storm

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[accordion_content accordion_label=”Science & Technology”]

  1. Genome of the Asian elephant sequenced for the first time in India

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  1. After Paris, The Balancing
  2. Averting Catastrophic Climate Change

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News Update : 06th Dec. 2015

News Update : 06th day of Dec. 2015

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[accordion_content accordion_label=”Economy”]

  1. China’s ‘world bank’ makes the U.S. balk
  2. OPEC fails to agree on production cap after Iran pledges output boost

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[accordion_content accordion_label=”Science & Technology”]

  1. PSLV bags two more U.S. launch orders

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  1. Proposal to achieve zero emissions by 2060-80
  2. Warm up to Climate Change

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